Middle Eastern Studies

University of California, Berkeley

About the Program

Please Note

The program in Middle Eastern Studies is being retired. Unless you can declare the major by December, 2017, you will be unable to major in Middle Eastern Studies. Much of this major’s content has been replaced by the new major in Global Studies. Please reference the Global Studies pages on the Berkeley Academic Guide or the Global Studies website: http://globalstudies.berkeley.edu/ for more information.


Bachelor of Arts

Since 1981, the interdisciplinary major in Middle Eastern Studies (MES) has provided UC Berkeley students with the opportunity to study a region of great historical and cultural importance whose political, economic, and social development is closely linked to that of our own society. The MES major covers the Arab world, Turkey, Iran, and Israel, intertwining history and culture, geography and ecology, politics and economics, with an emphasis on the modern and contemporary Middle East. Its broad and balanced program of study draws on a wide variety of Middle East-related courses offered by faculty from more than 20 different departments and schools in the University. Students in the MES major also learn at least one of the major Middle Eastern languages of today: Arabic, Hebrew, Persian, or Turkish. MES graduates have gone on to work in industry and government, both in the United States and abroad. About half pursue graduate studies. Many then go on to academic or professional careers.

The MES major falls under the academic supervision of the Center for Middle Eastern Studies (CMES). The CMES organizes public lectures, publishes a newsletter, maintains a small library, and promotes scholarship on the Middle East at all levels. Students are encouraged to utilize the Center's many resources. The MES major is administered through the International and Area Studies (IAS) Office. The IAS office provides information on all administrative aspects of the major including advice on when and how to declare, fulfilling requirements, and timely program completion. Academic advising, including planning a course of study to suit individual needs and interests, identifying a thesis topic and adviser, and career counseling, is offered by the MES chair.

Declaring the Major

Declaring a major in MES follows guidelines established by the College of Letters and Science. Students wishing to declare Middle Eastern Studies must satisfy the following criteria:

  • Have completed or are currently enrolled in one Middle East-related course at UC Berkeley, preferable one of the lower division requirements: NE STUD 10, HISTORY 12, M E STU 10
  • Have completed or are currently enrolled in a modern Middle Eastern language course (Arabic, Hebrew, Persian, or Turkish).
  • Have a major and cumulative GPA of 2.0 or higher.
  • Have attended a major declaration workshop (check the calendar at 101 Stephens hall or the IAS website for dates).
  • Must not be in their final semester of undergraduate work.

To be declared students must submit:

  1. The application Form and Program Worksheet.  
  2. A current Bear Facts transcript with student’s name printed on it. Please highlight all courses that apply to the major. For double majors or minors, please indicate which classes will overlap with the other major (maximum 2) or minor (maximum 1).
  3. Official and sealed transcripts from other colleges attended. If a student intends to count coursework from other colleges toward the major requirements, official transcripts from those colleges must be submitted with the MES application. We do not have access to transcripts in the Admissions Office, and students are responsible for requesting official transcripts from their other schools. Only official transcripts will be accepted.
  4. The “Petition to Declare a Major” signed by the student. If MES is a second major, the Double Major Application must be filled out and submitted when declaring MES.
  5. The Personal Statement—a typed, double-spaced, one page essay describing the student’s interest in MES. The purpose of this essay is to give MES advisers a clear picture of the student’s academic interests. In the statement, students should describe their interest in the major, their career aspirations, any plans for a higher degree, future goals, and anything else relevant to studying Middle Eastern Studies.

Applications are available in the IAS office at 101 Stephens Hall or the IAS website.  Fill out all the application materials and meet with an IAS adviser.

Honors Program

Senior students with a grade point average (GPA) of at least 3.6 in courses for the major and 3.5 in all coursework completed at UC Berkeley are eligible to apply to pursue honors during their final semester. Honors students enroll in M E STU H195 instead of M E STU 190. Entry into M E STU H195 is determined by GPA, the quality of the thesis prospectus produced in M E STU 102, and the recommendation of the MES chair and instructor of M E STU 102.

Please note: There is no guarantee that students who complete the honors program will graduate with honors. Honors recommendations are made after graduation and are based on a number of factors including (but not limited to) major GPA, grade received for ME STU H195, and faculty thesis adviser recommendations.

Minor Program

The minor in Middle Eastern Studies is designed to introduce students to the study of the modern Middle East, understood as comprising the Arab world, Turkey, Iran, and Israel, through social science and humanities courses. Students interested in emphasizing language, archaeology and/or ancient civilizations should investigate minors in the Department of Near Eastern Studies.

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Major Requirements

In addition to the University, campus, and college requirements, listed on the College Requirements tab, students must fulfill the below requirements specific to their major program.

General Guidelines

  1. No more than three upper division courses taken outside of the College of Letters & Science, including courses taken at other universities, EAP, study abroad, and other colleges on the UC Berkeley campus, may count towards major requirements.
  2. No more than three upper division courses may be taken from the same department. The one exception is for MES courses, of which an unlimited number may be taken, including multiple MES 130 and MES 150 courses (MES 130 and MES 150 are special topics courses. Check with an MES adviser to confirm that course content is appropriate for the major).
  3. A course crosslisted with MES should be taken through MES.  Students who intend to enroll in a cross-listed course and apply the course toward an upper division major requirement should see an MES adviser prior to enrolling.
  4. Courses cannot be double counted within the major.
  5. All courses taken to fulfill the major requirements below must be taken for a letter grade. The two exceptions are MES 109 (taught as Pass/No Pass only) and the foreign language requirement: only the fourth semester must be taken for a letter grade. The first, second, and third semester language classes may be taken Pass/No Pass
  6. A minimum grade point average (GPA) of 2.0 must be maintained in both upper and lower division courses used to fulfill the major requirements.

For information regarding residence requirements and unit requirements, please see the College Requirements tab.

Summary of Major Requirements

Lower Division Requirement: One course
Foreign Language Requirement: Proficiency equivalent to four college-level semesters
Upper Division Requirements: Nine courses
Core Courses: Three courses
Concentration: Four courses
Methodology: One course
Senior Thesis: One course

Lower Division Requirement

Select one of the following:4
Introduction to the Near East
The Middle East
Introduction to Middle Eastern Studies

Foreign Language Requirement

All Middle Eastern Studies (MES) students must be able to demonstrate proficiency equivalent to four college-level semesters in a modern Middle Eastern language: Arabic, Hebrew, Persian, or Turkish. The first semester language course must be completed or be in progress at the time of admission to the major. The remaining three courses may be completed at any time before graduation. The language cannot be started in the senior year and finished in the postgraduation summer.

There are three ways students can fulfill the four-semester language requirement, depending on their background and ability:

  1. Through coursework: A combination of college, summer program, or college-level study abroad programs could satisfy the language requirement. At a minimum, students must complete the fourth semester of a language with a grade of C- or better. The first, second, and third level of language may be taken on a Pass/No Pass basis. However, the fourth semester must be taken for a letter grade. Language courses need not be taken at Berkeley. Courses taken at a community college or any accredited school or university are acceptable. Advanced Placement Language Test scores of 5 complete the requirement. However, transcripts and score reports must be provided. See an IAS adviser concerning language study abroad.
  2. With a proficiency examination: Students whose language skills are at a fourth semester or beyond and who do not wish to take language courses can opt to test out of the requirement by requesting a language exam at the time of admission by an appropriate language instructor in the Department of Near Eastern Studies (see language directions in the Department of Near Eastern Studies for certification requirements). Language certification forms are required and may be obtained through the IAS office. Students whose exams reveal only partial ability to read, write and converse must take additional language courses to elevate their level, as determined by the examiner. These courses may be in any of the four Middle Eastern languages. Students who are able to show advanced or native ability in one Middle Eastern language are encouraged, but not required, to begin study of a second Middle Eastern language.
  3. Being a non-native English speaker: Non-native speakers of English may use their native Middle Eastern language to satisfy this requirement. This requires a language proficiency exam. See an IAS adviser for details. 

Upper Division Requirements

Core Courses (three courses)
Select three courses from the following, in three different departments:
Themes in the Anthropology of the Middle East and Islam
Islamaphobia and Constructing Otherness
Seminar on Advanced Topics in Asian American Studies
Special Topics
Special Topics
The Rise of Islamic Civilization, 600-1200
The Middle East, 1000-1750
The Middle East From the 18th Century to the Present
Model Arab League
Cross-Listed Topics
Advanced Study in the Middle East
Music of the Middle East
Topics in Islamic Thought and Institutions
Shi'ite Islam
Islam in Iran
Islam in Iran
Sufism: The Mysticism of Islam
Special Topics in Regional Conflict 1
Middle East Politics
Selected Topics in Comparative Perspectives
Concentration (four courses)
Select four courses to form a disciplinary concentration (see below for further details)
Methodology
M E STU 102Scope and Methods of Research in Middle Eastern Studies4
Senior Thesis
M E STU 190Senior Thesis1-4
or M E STU H195 Honors in Middle Eastern Studies
1

Only applicable when course focuses on Middle East. Requires approval by the MES chair. 

Additional Information: Concentration Requirement

Four courses are selected to form a disciplinary concentration, requiring students to pursue advanced study of a selected topic in Middle Eastern Studies following a particular disciplinary approach. In order to ensure disciplinary depth, at least two of the four courses taken to fulfill the concentration requirement must be from the same department. The remaining two courses must be thematically related to the selected topic. The concentration must be designed in consultation with the MES chair and preapproved by an MES staff adviser in the IAS office. Students may choose their concentration courses from the list of core courses and from any courses listed as having at least fifty percent Middle East-related content. Students may also petition to count up to two courses listed as having thirty-three precent Middle East-related content toward their concentration.

Minor Requirements

Students who have a strong interest in an area of study outside their major often decide to complete a minor program. These programs have set requirements and are noted officially on the transcript in the memoranda section, but they are not noted on diplomas.

General Guidelines

  1. All courses taken to fulfill the minor requirements below must be taken for graded credit.
  2. A minimum of three of the upper division courses taken to fulfill the minor requirements must be completed at UC Berkeley. All transfer courses must be approved by the MES Faculty Committee. Please see and IAS adviser for details. 
  3. A minimum grade point average (GPA) of 2.0 is required for courses used to fulfill the minor requirements.
  4. Courses used to fulfill the minor requirements may be applied toward the Seven-Course Breadth requirement, for Letters & Science students.
  5. No more than one upper division course may be used to simultaneously fulfill requirements for a student's major and minor programs.
  6. All minor requirements must be completed prior to the last day of finals during the semester in which the student plans to graduate. Students who cannot finish all courses required for the minor by that time should see a College of Letters & Science adviser.
  7. All minor requirements must be completed within the unit ceiling. (For further information regarding the unit ceiling, please see the College Requirements tab.)

MES Minor Course Requirements

One introductory lower division course from the following: MES 10, MES 20*, NES 10, History 12, *MES 20 is applicable to the MES minor only.

Five upper division Middle East-related courses selected from the list of core courses. Any substitutions must be preapproved by an MES adviser.

Minor Rules

  • Since the MES minor is interdisciplinary, the five upper division courses must be taken in at least two different departments.
  • The study of modern Middle Eastern languages is encouraged; however, there is no language requirement for the MES minor nor do language courses count toward the minor with the exception of advanced literature courses (third year level and above).
  • The six courses taken to satisfy MES minor must total 22 or more units.
  • With the exception of MES 109, all courses must be taken for a letter grade. MES 97, 98, 99, 197, 198 and 199 are not acceptable to fulfill minor requirements.
  • At least three of the upper division minor courses must be completed at UC Berkeley.
  • A minimum GPA of 2.0 must be achieved in the courses used to satisfy the minor.
  • Course work for the minor must be completed within the 130-unit maximum for graduation.

Minor Application Information

  1. The MES minor is open to all undergraduates with the exception of MES majors.
  2. Completed applications are accepted in fall and spring semesters, beginning the third week of instruction and ending on the last day of instruction (not the last day of finals), as well as from early June to mid-August.
  3. Students must declare the minor no later than the term preceding their final term.
  4. Students are required to meet with a MES adviser in 101 Stephens Hall to declare the minor.

A Complete MES Minor Application Consists Of:

  1. A completed MES Minor Application Form and Program Worksheet (found on the IAS website). 
  2. A copy of the Bear Facts transcript.
  3. For non-UC Berkeley coursework to be used on the minor, official and sealed transcripts reflecting that coursework.
  4. A copy of your current class schedule printed from Bear Facts, highlighting any courses being taken for the minor.
  5. The “Completion of L&S Minor” form signed by the student. This form is available from the College of Letters & Science, as well as on their website.

Foreign Language

The study of Middle Eastern languages in encouraged; however, there is no language requirement for the MES minor, nor do language courses count toward the minor.

Requirements

Lower Division
Select one of the following:4
Introduction to Middle Eastern Studies
Perspectives on the Middle East
Introduction to the Near East
The Middle East
Upper Division
Select five upper division Middle East-related courses, from at least two different departments

College Requirements

Undergraduate students in the College of Letters & Science must fulfill the following requirements in addition to those required by their major program.

For detailed lists of courses that fulfill college requirements, please review the College of Letters & Sciences page in this Guide.

Entry Level Writing

All students who will enter the University of California as freshmen must demonstrate their command of the English language by fulfilling the Entry Level Writing requirement. Fulfillment of this requirement is also a prerequisite to enrollment in all reading and composition courses at UC Berkeley. 

American History and American Institutions

The American History and Institutions requirements are based on the principle that a US resident graduated from an American university should have an understanding of the history and governmental institutions of the United States.

American Cultures

American Cultures is the one requirement that all undergraduate students at Cal need to take and pass in order to graduate. The requirement offers an exciting intellectual environment centered on the study of race, ethnicity and culture of the United States. AC courses offer students opportunities to be part of research-led, highly accomplished teaching environments, grappling with the complexity of American Culture.

Quantitative Reasoning

The Quantitative Reasoning requirement is designed to ensure that students graduate with basic understanding and competency in math, statistics, or computer science. The requirement may be satisfied by exam or by taking an approved course.

Foreign Language

The Foreign Language requirement may be satisfied by demonstrating proficiency in reading comprehension, writing, and conversation in a foreign language equivalent to the second semester college level, either by passing an exam or by completing approved course work.

Reading and Composition

In order to provide a solid foundation in reading, writing and critical thinking the College requires two semesters of lower division work in composition in sequence. Students must complete a first-level reading and composition course by the end of their second semester and a second-level course by the end of their fourth semester.

Breadth Requirements

The undergraduate breadth requirements provide Berkeley students with a rich and varied educational experience outside of their major program. As the foundation of a liberal arts education, breadth courses give students a view into the intellectual life of the University while introducing them to a multitude of perspectives and approaches to research and scholarship. Engaging students in new disciplines and with peers from other majors, the breadth experience strengthens interdisciplinary connections and context that prepares Berkeley graduates to understand and solve the complex issues of their day.

Unit Requirements

  • 120 total units, including at least 60 L&S units

  • Of the 120 units, 36 must be upper division units

  • Of the 36 upper division units, 6 must be taken in courses offered outside your major department

Residence Requirements

For units to be considered in "residence," you must be registered in courses on the Berkeley campus as a student in the College of Letters & Science. Most students automatically fulfill the residence requirement by attending classes here for four years. In general, there is no need to be concerned about this requirement, unless you go abroad for a semester or year or want to take courses at another institution or through UC Extension during your senior year. In these cases, you should make an appointment to meet an adviser to determine how you can meet the Senior Residence Requirement.

Note: Courses taken through UC Extension do not count toward residence.

Senior Residence Requirement

After you become a senior (with 90 semester units earned toward your BA degree), you must complete at least 24 of the remaining 30 units in residence in at least two semesters. To count as residence, a semester must consist of at least 6 passed units. Intercampus Visitor, EAP, and UC Berkeley-Washington Program (UCDC) units are excluded.

You may use a Berkeley Summer Session to satisfy one semester of the Senior Residence requirement, provided that you successfully complete 6 units of course work in the Summer Session and that you have been enrolled previously in the college.

Modified Senior Residence Requirement

Participants in the UC Education Abroad Program (EAP) or the UC Berkeley Washington Program (UCDC) may meet a Modified Senior Residence requirement by completing 24 (excluding EAP) of their final 60 semester units in residence. At least 12 of these 24 units must be completed after you have completed 90 units.

Upper Division Residence Requirement

You must complete in residence a minimum of 18 units of upper division courses (excluding EAP units), 12 of which must satisfy the requirements for your major.

Student Learning Goals

Learning Goals for the Major

  • General familiarity in area studies of the Middle East that includes the politics, history, and cultures of the geographic region encompassing the Arab world, Turkey, Iran, and Israel;
  • Knowledge of the key political, economic, and social issues in the contemporary Middle East;
  • Understanding of the basic tenets of Islam, its historical development, and its relationship to minority religions of the region;
  • Deep understanding of one particular issue or topic within the field of MES;
  • Proficiency in at least one modern Middle Eastern language: Arabic, Turkish, Persian, or Hebrew, other regional languages (Armenian, Berber, etc.) subject to petition;
  • Familiarity with interdisciplinary methodologies, relatively in depth knowledge of one particular discipline’s approach to MES.

Skills

  • Strong foreign language speaking and writing skills;
  • Ability to recognize and use interdisciplinary approaches within the field of area studies;
  • Training in qualitative and, where relevant, quantitative methods of data analysis and interpretation;
  • Advanced critical thinking and evaluation skills;
  • Ability to understand and articulate politically sensitive issues according to academic rules and practices;
  • Excellent written and oral communication.

Courses

Middle Eastern Studies

M E STU 10 Introduction to Middle Eastern Studies 4 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2016, Fall 2015, Summer 2015 First 6 Week Session
This course is a lower division introduction to the study of the contemporary Middle East and North Africa, with emphasis on historical trajectories, political, social, and cultural transformations, and religious phenomena. It covers topics related to the Arab world, Turkey, Iran, and Israel from an interdisciplinary perspective. The intended audience for the course is Middle Eastern Studies majors, prospective majors,
and minors, for whom it fulfills the lower division requirement, as well as students in other majors interested in the Middle East.
Introduction to Middle Eastern Studies: Read More [+]

M E STU 20 Perspectives on the Middle East 2 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2015, Fall 2014, Spring 2014
A weekly seminar including guest speakers on (1) ethnic perspectives (Persians, Arabs, Turks, Israelis); (2) religious perspectives (Islam, Christianity, Judaism); and (3) disciplinary perspectives (anthropology, sociology, etc.). The seminar introduces students to the work of several major Berkeley Middle East scholars. The class has no prerequisites and admission preference is given to lower division students and prospective Middle Eastern
majors.
Perspectives on the Middle East: Read More [+]

M E STU 24 Freshman Seminar 1 Unit

Terms offered: Fall 2016, Spring 2016, Spring 2015
The Freshman Seminar Program has been designed to provide new students with the opportunity to explore an intellectual topic with a faculty member in a small seminar setting. Freshman seminars are offered in all campus departments, and topics vary from department to department and semester to semester. Enrollment is limited to 15 freshmen.

Freshman Seminar: Read More [+]

M E STU 98 Directed Group Study for Lower Division Students 1 - 4 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2013, Spring 2013, Fall 2012
Seminars in various fields of Middle East studies designed to introduce beginning undergraduates to problems of importance to students interested in the Middle East. Topics vary from semester to semester.

Directed Group Study for Lower Division Students: Read More [+]

M E STU 102 Scope and Methods of Research in Middle Eastern Studies 4 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2015, Fall 2014, Fall 2013
Required for all students majoring in Middle Eastern Studies, open to all students in International and Area Studies Teaching Program focusing on the Middle East interdisciplinary research strategies for the collection, interpretation, and analysis of data. Course integrates the study of the fundamental theories of social science, with the practical techniques of social science research methods.

Scope and Methods of Research in Middle Eastern Studies: Read More [+]

M E STU 109 Model Arab League 3 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2015, Spring 2014, Spring 2013
The Model Arab League is a simulation of the League of Arab States similar to the Model United Nations. Class meetings will be for familiarization of relevant political perspectives within the context of the Arab world. Students learn parliamentary procedure and to prepare resolutions. Each student is assigned to a committee and is responsible for participating in the development of the committee's resolution and its presentation at the Model
Arab League.
Model Arab League: Read More [+]

M E STU 120 Selected Topics--Middle Eastern Studies 3 Units

Terms offered: Summer 2013 3 Week Session, Summer 2012 10 Week Session, Summer 2012 3 Week Session
Interdisciplinary study of selected topics in Middle Eastern studies. Each offering will focus on specific issues or topics concerning one or more areas of the Middle East. Through lectures, discussions, and multimedia presentations, students will explore a variety of perspectives relating to the subject matter of the course. Students will be expected to successfully complete various writing assignments
or short projects, and written exam(s).
Selected Topics--Middle Eastern Studies: Read More [+]

M E STU 130 Cross-Listed Topics 1 - 4 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2017, Spring 2016, Spring 2015
This course is designed to accommodate cross-listed courses offered through other departments, the content of which is applicable to Middle Eastern Studies majors. Content and unit values vary from course to course.

Cross-Listed Topics: Read More [+]

M E STU 150 Advanced Study in the Middle East 4 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2016, Spring 2016, Fall 2015
Advanced research in current issues of Middle Eastern Studies. Seminars will focus on specific areas or topics with appropriate comparative material included. A major research project is required as well as class presentations. Topics to vary from semester to semester.

Advanced Study in the Middle East: Read More [+]

M E STU 190 Senior Thesis 1 - 4 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2017, Spring 2016, Spring 2015
With the guidance of a faculty member of the program, the preparation and presentation of a senior thesis pertaining to the student's individual area of concentration within the Middle Eastern Studies major. Final paper required. Units determined on consultation with instructor.

Senior Thesis: Read More [+]

M E STU 194 On-Line Research and Digital Production for Middle Eastern Studies 3 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2014
This workshop is intended for Middle Eastern Studies majors undertaking senior theses projects. It should be taken in the spring semester, while students are enrolled in MES 190/H195: “Senior Thesis in MES.” Students in this workshop will explore online research tools and web-building techniques with an aim to complement their theses with multimedia websites that disseminate their findings and demonstrate their capacity for research to a wider audience. Moreover,
the study of these tools, techniques, and publishing platforms will enable students to hone their digital literacy in an increasingly connected online world.
On-Line Research and Digital Production for Middle Eastern Studies: Read More [+]

M E STU H195 Honors in Middle Eastern Studies 4 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2017, Spring 2016, Spring 2015
This course is the second of a two-semester senior honors program and culminates in the completion of a senior thesis. The thesis project begins with 102, which must be successfully completed before enrollment in H195. During this semester, an honors thesis of approximately 50-75 pages is completed under the direct supervision of the instructor of the Honors seminar program in International and Area Studies and a faculty member appropriate
to the student's interest.
Honors in Middle Eastern Studies: Read More [+]

M E STU 198 Directed Group Study for Upper Division Students 1 - 4 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2016, Summer 2013 Second 6 Week Session, Spring 2013
Seminar for the group study of selected Middle Eastern related topics not covered by regularly scheduled courses. A written proposal must be approved by a Middle Eastern Studies faculty adviser. Final paper required. Units determined on consultation with instructor.

Directed Group Study for Upper Division Students: Read More [+]

M E STU 199 Supervised Independent Study and Research 1 - 4 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2017, Summer 2016 8 Week Session, Summer 2015 8 Week Session
For students wishing to pursue an interest not represented in the curriculum by developing an individual program of study and research supervised by a faculty member. A written proposal must be approved by a Middle Eastern Studies faculty adviser. Final paper required. Units determined on consultation with instructor.

Supervised Independent Study and Research: Read More [+]

Faculty and Instructors

Faculty

Emily Gottreich, Associate Adjunct Professor. Middle Eastern Studies, Islamic Urban Studies, Jewish history, Morocco, North Africa, Sephardic Studies.
Research Profile

Lecturers

Peter Bartu, Lecturer.

Daniel Zoughbie, Lecturer.

Contact Information

International and Area Studies Academic Program

International and Area Studies Program, 101 Stephens Hall

Phone: 510-642-4466

Fax: 510-642-9850

iastp@berkeley.edu

Visit Program Website

Program Chair

Emily Gottreich

340 Stephens Hall

Phone: 510-642-8208

emilyrg@berkeley.edu

Lead Undergraduate Academic Adviser

Ethan Savage

101 Stephens Hall

Phone: 510-643-4156

ethansavage@berkeley.edu

Undergraduate Academic Adviser

Nithya Raghunathan

101 Stephens Hall

Phone: 510-643-7282

nraghunathan@berkeley.edu

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