Peace and Conflict Studies

University of California, Berkeley

About the Program

Bachelor of Arts (BA)

Note: The Peace & Conflict Studies major is being retired and replaced by Global Studies.  The deadline to declare Peace & Conflict Studies is Friday, December 8, 2017.  Please visit the Global Studies website or the Global Studies page on the Berkeley Academic Guide for more information.  

Peace and Conflict Studies has been an undergraduate major at UC Berkeley since 1985. Peace and Conflict Studies (PACS) was founded on the belief that war and other forms of conflict, despite their ubiquity, can be mitigated and transformed through critical knowledge and active engagement. PACS, as an interdisciplinary major, provides students with both the academic training and the tools to engage critically the complex issues of conflict and peace in local, national and global contexts. Hence it is excellent training and preparation for postgraduate education in social science disciplines or careers in either the public or private sectors. The ultimate goal of the program is to produce not only a generation of well-informed students but also global citizens who are actively engaged in the change process.

Towards these ends, the PACS major’s requirements are designed to help students develop an integrative understanding of global issues, conflict resolution and peacebuilding theories, research, and practice. They are structured to provide students with both breadth of knowledge through the major’s core and concentration courses, and depth of knowledge through the concentration and senior capstone project. In consultation with an academic adviser, students choose courses that will fulfill major requirements, select a concentration, and propose an academic plan that reflects clear intellectual coherence. The areas of concentration are:

  • Human Rights and Human Security
  • Conflict Resolution and Peace Building
  • National Politics, International Institutions, and World Order
  • Student’s self-designed concentration

Declaring the Major

Applications are accepted during fall and spring semesters beginning the third week of instruction and through the last week of instruction (not the week of finals). Applications are accepted during summer session beginning in June through mid-August.

Students who have completed the required prerequisite coursework may apply to PACS in their freshmen or sophomore year. We recommend that students interested in declaring a major in Peace and Conflict Studies do so at least 2 semesters prior to the semester in which they intend to graduate. If students are ineligible to declare PACS at that time (please see the Eligibility to Declare section below), they should see an L&S adviser to discuss their options. Students may not declare and graduate in the same semester.

Declaring a major in Peace and Conflict Studies follows guidelines established by the College of Letters & Science (L&S). Students wishing to declare PACS:

  1. Must be currently enrolled in or have completed PACS 10 with a grade of C or better (PACS 10 can be repeated only once in order to obtain a grade of "C" or better; there are no transferable equivalents for PACS 10 from California community colleges).
  2. Have a cumulative grade point average (GPA) of 2.0 or higher.
  3. Must have attended a major declaration workshop.
  4. Must not be in their final semester of undergraduate work.
  5. Are encouraged but not required to have completed at least two semesters of college-level foreign language or the equivalent before applying to the major.

To declare the major, students must meet with a program adviser in person to submit the PACS application materials.

Bring a completed PACS Application, including all materials and transcripts listed below, to the IAS Office at 101 Stephens Hall. The PACS application can be found on the PACS webpage: http://iastp.berkeley.edu/pacs. Students will not be officially declared until they have submitted all declaration materials.

Honors Program

To graduate with honors from the group major in Peace and Conflict Studies, students must enroll in the two-semester honors seminar, IAS H102 Scope and Methods of Research in International and Area Studies (fall only) and PACS H195 (spring only), and must obtain GPAs of 3.6 in the major and 3.5 in overall university coursework. The honors seminar (PACS H195) is taken in addition to a student's regular coursework for fulfilling requirements for the major and culminates in the writing of a senior thesis. The thesis is read by the PACS H195 instructor and at least one other faculty member who is selected by the student in consultation with the thesis class instructor. Eligibility for participating in the honors program is determined in the IAS office. Note: There is no guarantee that students accepted into the honors program will graduate with honors. Honors recommendations are made after graduation and are based on a number of factors including (but not limited to) major GPA, grades received for IAS H102 and PACS H195, and faculty adviser recommendations.

Minor Program

The PACS minor is open to all undergraduates except PACS majors. Applications for the minor and a list of approved courses are available from the IAS office. To apply for the minor, students must have completed at least one PACS course with a grade of B or better and have an overall GPA of 2.0. Completed applications and a Petition for Confirmation of Minor Program must be submitted to the IAS office at 101 Stephens Hall no later than the last day of instruction of the term immediately preceding your final semester.

Visit Program Website

Major Requirements

In addition to the University, campus, and college requirements, listed on the College Requirements tab, students must fulfill the below requirements specific to their major program.

Repeat Rule

Students who earn a grade of F, D-, D, D+ or NP may repeat the course only once. Regardless of the grade the student receives for their second attempt (including F, D-, D or D+), the student may not repeat the course a third time.

General Guidelines

  1. All courses taken to fulfill the major requirements below must be taken for graded credit, other than courses listed which are offered on a Pass/No Pass basis only. Other exceptions to this requirement are noted as applicable.
  2. No more than one upper division course may be used to simultaneously fulfill requirements for a student's major and minor programs, with the exception of minors offered outside of the College of Letters & Science.
  3. A minimum grade point average (GPA) of 2.0 must be maintained in both upper and lower division courses used to fulfill the major requirements.

For information regarding residence requirements and unit requirements, please see the College Requirements tab.

Summary of Major Requirements

Lower Division Requirements: Three courses
Foreign Language Requirement: Proficiency equivalent to four college-level semesters
Upper Division Requirements: Nine courses, divided into three categories

Lower Division Requirements

PACS 10Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies 14
Select two from the following:
Africa: History and Culture
African American Life and Culture in the United States
Introduction to Social/Cultural Anthropology (American Cultures)
Introduction to Social and Cultural Anthropology
Introduction to Development
Introduction to Economics
Introduction to Economics--Lecture Format
Introduction to Environmental Economics and Policy
Introduction to Environmental Economics and Policy
A Comparative Survey of Protest Movements Since the 60's
World Regions, Peoples, and States
Justice, Nature, and the Geographies of Identity
Introduction to Development
Introduction to Chinese History from the Mongols to Mao
Latin American History: Modern Latin America
African History
Introduction to the History of Japan
Survey of World History
Introduction to Latin American Studies
Introduction to Middle Eastern Studies
Introduction to Comparative Politics
Introduction to Political Theory
Introduction to International Relations
Principles of Sociology: American Cultures
1

This course can only be repeated once.

Foreign Language Requirement

Peace and Conflict Studies (PACS) majors must demonstrate proficiency in a modern language other than English by the last semester of their senior year. Proficiency is equivalent to the ability achieved in four college-level semesters (two years). Language courses taken in high school do not satisfy this requirement. See below for details on how to fulfill the foreign language requirement.

Languages accepted by the College of Letters & Science are not automatically accepted by the PACS department. Please check with a PACS adviser for eligible languages.

There are a variety of ways to fulfill the four-semester language requirement for PACS, depending on the individual and his or her background and ability:

  1. Advanced Placement (AP) or International Baccalaureate (IB) test: An AP score of 5 or an International Baccalaureate (IB) score of 7 will complete this requirement. An AP score of 4 will place a student into the fourth-semester college level course. A score of 3 will place a student into the third-semester college level course. Documentation of AP scores must be provided.
  2. Coursework: Any combination of college courses, summer programs, or college-level study abroad programs can satisfy the language requirement. At a minimum, students must complete the fourth semester (i.e., the second semester of intermediate level) of a language with a grade of C- or better in order to fulfill the requirement. The first, second, and third-level courses may be taken on a Pass/No Pass basis. Language courses need not be taken at UCB. Courses taken at a community college or any accredited school or university may be acceptable. Transcripts must be submitted and evaluated by a PACS adviser. A one-semester upper division course taken abroad in the target language may satisfy the foreign language requirement, depending on the school and program followed. For more information, see a PACS adviser concerning language study abroad.
  3. Proficiency exam: Some, but not all, language departments on campus offer proficiency testing for students with advanced skills in that language. Please note that if a particular language is not taught on the UC Berkeley campus, then students are not able to test in that language. A student would then need to choose one of the other methods for fulfilling the foreign language requirement. Please speak with a PACS adviser about proficiency testing.
  4. High school completion in a non-English language: Students who were educated in a non-English language through the completion of high school or the equivalent may wish to satisfy this requirement with that experience. This requires a language proficiency exam. 

Upper Division Requirements

Core Courses
Peace Theory: Approaches and Analyses
Methodology
PACS 190Senior Seminar4
PACS 195Senior Thesis3-4
Select one course from either the Statistical Methods category or the Research Design category:
Statistical Methods
Introduction to Population Analysis
Economic Statistics and Econometrics
Applied Econometrics and Public Policy
Introductory Applied Econometrics
Applied Econometrics and Public Policy
Applied Econometrics and Public Policy
Introductory Applied Econometrics
Research and Data Analysis in Psychology
Introduction to Probability and Statistics in Biology and Public Health
Quantitative Sociological Methods
Concepts of Statistics
Sampling Surveys
Research Design
Research Methods for African American Studies
Research Theory and Methods in Socio-Cultural Anthropology
Social Science Methods in Ethnic Studies
Humanities Methods in Ethnic Studies
Selected Issues in Comparative Ethnic Studies Research Course content varies from semester to semester. An IAS adviser's pre-approval is required.
Scope and Methods of Research in International and Area Studies
Scope and Methods of Research in Middle Eastern Studies Entry into MES 102 by non-MES majors is through permission of the instructor only.
Theories and Methods in Native American Studies
Research Design and Sociological Methods
Concentration
The Concentration is intended to provide students with the opportunity to develop a deeper understanding of a particular issue or topic in Peace and Conflict Studies. Students can choose from two options.
Option One: The Pre-Designed Concentration (descriptions below)
Option Two: The Self-Designed Concentration
1

Course content varies from semester to semester. A faculty adviser's preapproval is required.

Completing the Concentration

To complete a concentration, students must:

1. Construct and submit a thoughtful course list, along with a statement about the intellectual coherence of the courses proposed. In constructing this list, students must clearly demonstrate the following:

  • How the proposed courses align with the selected concentration topic.
  • How the proposed courses align with one another.

2. Take five courses that:

  • Have explicit content focus in the proposed or selected concentration topic.
  • Clearly relate to each other.
  • As a cluster, present a coherent intellectual trajectory.
  • Include at least two courses from PACS.

3. Secure approval from the IAS Faculty Committee for the proposed academic plan; IAS advisers will keep students apprised of their progress towards program approval.

Pre-Designed Concentration Descriptions

Conflict Resolution and Peace Building

Courses in this concentration engage students in the analysis of the root causes of conflict and introduce them to theories and approaches for resolving conflicts peacefully and for building foundations for sustainable peace. These include conflict management and transformation, nonviolence and mediation, and strategies of war prevention and postconflict reconciliation among state and non-state actors at global, national, and local levels. Students in this area of concentration will acquire a deeper understanding of the different forms and levels of conflict and be better prepared to engage in conflict resolution and peace building processes through theories, cutting edge research, innovative project development, and self-reflection.

Note: Students must choose two of these courses:PACS 151, PACS 154, PACS 164, PACS 170.

AFRICAM 111Race, Class, and Gender in the United States3
ANTHRO 157Anthropology of Law4
ASAMST 132Islamaphobia and Constructing Otherness4
EDUC 189Democracy and Education4
ESPM 100Environmental Problem Solving4
ESPM 169International Environmental Politics4
HISTORY 125BHistory of African-Americans and Race Relations in the United States: Soul Power: African American History 1861-19804
HISTORY 162AEurope and the World: Wars, Empires, Nations 1648-19144
IAS 150Advanced Studies in International and Area Studies 14
LEGALST 107Theories of Justice4
LEGALST 109Aims and Limits of the Criminal Law4
LEGALST 170Crime and Criminal Justice4
M E STU 150Advanced Study in the Middle East 14
PACS 135Special Topics in Regional Conflict 13
PACS 149Global Change and World Order3
PACS 150Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice3
PACS 151International Conflict: Analysis and Resolution3
PACS 154Multicultural Conflict Resolution4
PACS 164AIntroduction to Nonviolence3
PACS 170Conflict Resolution, Social Change, and the Cultures of Peace4
POL SCI 124AWar!4
PSYCH 167ACStigma and Prejudice3
SOCIOL 130ACSocial Inequalities: American Cultures4
SOCIOL 131ACRace and Ethnic Relations: U.S. American Cultures4

National Politics, International Institutions, and World Order

This concentration addresses theories, concepts, and issues of governance through critical examination of structures, systems and processes through which power is exercised in local, national, regional and global arenas. It places analytic focus on formal and informal institutions, mechanisms, relationships, and processes between and among various political actors, namely state authorities, inter-and nongovernment organizations, private sector entities, and civil society in the articulation, contestation, and negotiation of interests. It is especially attentive to the definition and identification of key features of good governance in relationship to peace building. International relations, regimes, the United Nations system, international law and diplomacy, international, regional and community-based organizations, state and non-state actors, and transnational advocacy networks are among the topics covered in this concentration.

Note: Students must choose two of these courses: PACS 149, PACS 135, PACS 119. If students select PACS 135 or PACS 119 (special topics courses), the course must bear explicit and significant relevance to topics covered in the concentration.

ASIANST 150Special Topics 14
CY PLAN 115Urbanization in Developing Countries4
DEV STD C100/GEOG C112History of Development and Underdevelopment4
ESPM 165International Rural Development Policy4
GWS 141Interrogating Global Economic "Development"4
GEOG C112/DEV STD C100History of Development and Underdevelopment4
GEOG 130Food and the Environment4
HISTORY 109CThe Middle East From the 18th Century to the Present4
HISTORY 112BAfrica: Modern South Africa, 1652-Present4
HISTORY 112CColonialism and Nationalism in Africa4
HISTORY 114BIndia: Modern South Asia4
HISTORY 124AThe Recent United States: The United States from the Late 19th Century to the Eve of World War II4
HISTORY 160The International Economy of the 20th Century4
HISTORY 162BWar and Peace: International Relations since 19144
IAS 150Advanced Studies in International and Area Studies 14
L & S 150AInternational Studies3,4
L & S C180UWealth and Poverty4
LATAMST 150Advanced Studies in Latin American Studies 14
LEGALST 132ACImmigration and Citizenship4
LEGALST 158Law and Development4
LEGALST 177Survey of American Legal and Constitutional History4
LEGALST 182Law, Politics and Society4
NATAMST 101Native American Tribal Governments4
PACS 119Special Topics in Peace and Conflict Issues 14
PACS 125ACWar, Culture, and Society4
PACS 135Special Topics in Regional Conflict 13
PACS 149Global Change and World Order3
POLECON 101Contemporary Theories of Political Economy4
POL SCI 122APolitics of European Integration4
POL SCI 124CEthics and Justice in International Affairs4
POL SCI 138EThe Varieties of Capitalism: Political Economic Systems of the World4
POL SCI 141CPolitics and Government in Eastern Europe4
POL SCI 143ANortheast Asian Politics4
POL SCI 144BPolitics of Divided Korea4
POL SCI 146AAfrican Politics4
POL SCI 148ALatin American Politics4
POL SCI 149ESpecial Topics in Area Studies4
POL SCI 157BConstitutional Law of the United States4
SOCIOL 127Development and Globalization4
SOCIOL 131ACRace and Ethnic Relations: U.S. American Cultures4

Human Rights and Human Security

This concentration focuses on empirical and theoretical discussions of relevant issues of well-being, dignity, and equity considered as foundational to the building of sustainable peace, as they are linked to the concepts of rights, their definitions, characteristics, application, and evolution. It also examines local, regional, and global forces and conditions that assist or undermine their promotion, as well as addresses the roles and obligations, both normative and legal, of states and non-state actors in mitigating the many forms of threats that encroach upon the rights of individuals and communities and advancing human rights and human security agendas. Students will be introduced to the intellectual and situated histories of rights regimes and given an opportunity not only to engage the discourse on human rights and human security but to also explore ways to contribute to their advancement. Topics in this concentration include traditional notions of security as embedded in the notion of “freedom from fear” as well as the people-centered human security concerns with the protection and promotion of the survival and well being of individuals and groups such as economic security, food security, health security, environmental security, community security, and political security.

Note: Students must choose two of these courses: PACS 126, PACS 127, PACS 128AC.

AFRICAM 111Race, Class, and Gender in the United States3
AFRICAM 112APolitical and Economic Development in the Third World4
AFRICAM 112BPolitical and Economic Development in the Third World4
ASAMST 125Contemporary Issues of Southeast Asian Refugees in the U.S4
ASAMST 126Southeast Asian Migration and Community Formation4
ASAMST 141Law in the Asian American Community4
CHICANO 159Mexican Immigration4
CHICANO 174Chicanos, Law, and Criminal Justice4
ENE,RES 175Water and Development4
ESPM 162Bioethics and Society4
GEOG 159ACThe Southern Border4
IAS 150Advanced Studies in International and Area Studies4
ESPM 163ACEnvironmental Justice: Race, Class, Equity, and the Environment4
ESPM 169International Environmental Politics4
GWS 141Interrogating Global Economic "Development"4
GEOG 130Food and the Environment4
GPP 115Global Poverty: Challenges and Hopes in the New Millennium4
HISTORY C187The History and Practice of Human Rights4
ISF 100EThe Globalization of Rights, Values, and Laws in the 21st Century4
LATAMST 150Advanced Studies in Latin American Studies 14
LEGALST 140Property and Liberty4
LEGALST 154Human Rights, Research & Practice4
L & S C180TCourse Not Available4
PACS 119Special Topics in Peace and Conflict Issues 14
PACS 126International Human Rights4
PACS 127Human Rights and Global Politics4
PACS 128ACHuman Rights and American Cultures4
POL SCI 124CEthics and Justice in International Affairs4
POL SCI 157BConstitutional Law of the United States4
SOCIOL 124Sociology of Poverty4
UGIS 110Introduction to Disability Studies3
1

Course content varies from semester to semester. A faculty adviser's preapproval is required.

Self-Designed Concentration

Students must submit the Self-Designed Concentration Approval Form, along with a 1-2 page statement explaining how the proposed courses align with the proposed topic and how the courses align with each other. Students must propose five courses of their choosing, two of which must be PACS courses. PACS advisers are available to meet with students regarding their concentration proposals.

To get started on the Self-Designed Concentration, students should think about an existing or potential issue or question in peace and conflict studies. Then they should choose four courses that will inform or increase their understanding about that issue. These courses should all relate to the topic as well as to one another. Students are encouraged to be imaginative in defining a Concentration. A concentration issue is formulated by the student with the assistance of a PACS adviser who can help to explain, clarify, or perhaps challenge that issue.

When choosing concentration courses, students should be mindful of the following:

  • No more than two courses from the same department may count toward the concentration.
  • Only courses that are demonstrably relevant to the concentration topic will be approved. Therefore, it is not advisable for a student to take courses they hope to count for their concentration prior to getting declared. There is no guarantee they will be accepted for the major.
  • Up to three courses taken abroad may count, provided they conform to the concentration topic. A syllabus in English must be provided.
  • All courses, including those taken abroad, must be upper division, 3 units or more, and taken for a letter grade.

​Getting a Concentration Approved

To have a concentration approved, students must submit a two-paragraph description of the particular issue they would like to study. Students must also submit a list of their four proposed courses along with a brief explanation (1-2 sentences each) of how each course relates to their proposed concentration. Please use the form provided on the PACS website.

Concentration proposals must be submitted in person to a PACS adviser along with the complete PACS application. Students may be asked to provide syllabi for certain courses. All concentration proposals are reviewed by the IAS Faculty Committee, and students are notified by email whether their concentration has been accepted or is being returned for revisions.

Any subsequent changes to already approved concentration topics and/or courses must be submitted to a PACS adviser for review and approval by the IAS Faculty Committee prior to altering the concentration.

Minor Requirements

Note: The Peace & Conflict Studies minor is being retired.  The deadline to declare Peace & Conflict Studies is Friday, December 8, 2017.  Please visit the Global Studies website or the Global Studies page on the Berkeley Academic Guide for more information.  

Students who have a strong interest in an area of study outside their major often decide to complete a minor program. These programs have set requirements and are noted officially on the transcript in the memoranda section, but they are not noted on diplomas.

General Guidelines

  1. All courses taken to fulfill the minor requirements below must be taken for graded credit.
  2. A minimum of three of the upper division courses taken to fulfill the minor requirements must be completed at UC Berkeley.
  3. A minimum grade point average (GPA) of 2.0 is required for courses used to fulfill the minor requirements.
  4. Courses used to fulfill the minor requirements may be applied toward the Seven-Course Breadth requirement for Letters & Science students.
  5. No more than one upper division course may be used to simultaneously fulfill requirements for a student's major and minor programs.
  6. All minor requirements must be completed prior to the last day of finals during the semester in which the student plans to graduate. Students who cannot finish all courses required for the minor by that time should see a College of Letters & Science adviser.
  7. All minor requirements must be completed within the unit ceiling. (For further information regarding the unit ceiling, please see the College Requirements tab.)

Minor Requirements

Upper Division
Choose three from the following PACS courses:
Peace Theory: Approaches and Analyses
Special Topics in Peace and Conflict Issues
International Human Rights
Human Rights and Global Politics
Special Topics in Regional Conflict
Global Change and World Order
Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice
International Conflict: Analysis and Resolution
Multicultural Conflict Resolution
Introduction to Nonviolence
Conflict Resolution, Social Change, and the Cultures of Peace

Choose three courses from one of the following Areas of Concentration:

I. National Politics, International Institutions and World Order
Special Topics
Urbanization in Developing Countries
History of Development and Underdevelopment
International Rural Development Policy
Economic Geography of the Industrial World
Food and the Environment
Global Poverty: Challenges and Hopes in the New Millennium
Interrogating Global Economic "Development"
The Middle East From the 18th Century to the Present
Africa: Modern South Africa, 1652-Present
Colonialism and Nationalism in Africa
India: Modern South Asia
The Recent United States: The United States from the Late 19th Century to the Eve of World War II
HISTORY 130B
Course Not Available
The International Economy of the 20th Century
War and Peace: International Relations since 1914
Advanced Studies in International and Area Studies
International Studies
Wealth and Poverty
Advanced Studies in Latin American Studies
Immigration and Citizenship
Law and Development
Survey of American Legal and Constitutional History
Law, Politics and Society
Native American Tribal Governments
War, Culture, and Society
Global Change and World Order
Contemporary Theories of Political Economy
Politics of European Integration
Ethics and Justice in International Affairs
The Varieties of Capitalism: Political Economic Systems of the World
Politics and Government in Eastern Europe
Northeast Asian Politics
Japanese Politics
Politics of Divided Korea
African Politics
Latin American Politics
Constitutional Law of the United States
Wealth and Poverty
Development and Globalization
Race and Ethnic Relations: U.S. American Cultures
II. Human Rights and Human Security
Race, Class, and Gender in the United States
Political and Economic Development in the Third World
Political and Economic Development in the Third World
Contemporary Issues of Southeast Asian Refugees in the U.S
Southeast Asian Migration and Community Formation
Law in the Asian American Community
Special Topics
Mexican Immigration
Chicanos, Law, and Criminal Justice
Water and Development
ESPM 155
Course Not Available
Bioethics and Society
Environmental Justice: Race, Class, Equity, and the Environment
International Environmental Politics
Food and the Environment
The Southern Border
Global Poverty: Challenges and Hopes in the New Millennium
Interrogating Global Economic "Development"
The History and Practice of Human Rights
Advanced Studies in International and Area Studies
The Globalization of Rights, Values, and Laws in the 21st Century
The History and Practice of Human Rights
Wealth and Poverty
Advanced Studies in Latin American Studies
Property and Liberty
Human Rights, Research & Practice
Special Topics in Peace and Conflict Issues
International Human Rights
Human Rights and Global Politics
Human Rights and American Cultures
Ethics and Justice in International Affairs
Constitutional Law of the United States
Wealth and Poverty
Sociology of Poverty
Introduction to Disability Studies
 III. Conflict Resolution and Peace Building
Race, Class, and Gender in the United States
Anthropology of Law
Islamaphobia and Constructing Otherness
Democracy and Education
Environmental Problem Solving
International Environmental Politics
History of African-Americans and Race Relations in the United States: Soul Power: African American History 1861-1980
Europe and the World: Wars, Empires, Nations 1648-1914
Advanced Studies in International and Area Studies
Theories of Justice
Aims and Limits of the Criminal Law
Crime and Criminal Justice
Topics in Film
Special Topics in Regional Conflict
Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice
International Conflict: Analysis and Resolution
Multicultural Conflict Resolution
Introduction to Nonviolence
Conflict Resolution, Social Change, and the Cultures of Peace
War!
Stigma and Prejudice
Social Inequalities: American Cultures
Race and Ethnic Relations: U.S. American Cultures

College Requirements

Undergraduate students in the College of Letters & Science must fulfill the following requirements in addition to those required by their major program.

For detailed lists of courses that fulfill college requirements, please review the College of Letters & Sciences page in this Guide.

Entry Level Writing

All students who will enter the University of California as freshmen must demonstrate their command of the English language by fulfilling the Entry Level Writing requirement. Fulfillment of this requirement is also a prerequisite to enrollment in all reading and composition courses at UC Berkeley. 

American History and American Institutions

The American History and Institutions requirements are based on the principle that a US resident graduated from an American university should have an understanding of the history and governmental institutions of the United States.

American Cultures

American Cultures is the one requirement that all undergraduate students at Cal need to take and pass in order to graduate. The requirement offers an exciting intellectual environment centered on the study of race, ethnicity and culture of the United States. AC courses offer students opportunities to be part of research-led, highly accomplished teaching environments, grappling with the complexity of American Culture.

Quantitative Reasoning

The Quantitative Reasoning requirement is designed to ensure that students graduate with basic understanding and competency in math, statistics, or computer science. The requirement may be satisfied by exam or by taking an approved course.

Foreign Language

The Foreign Language requirement may be satisfied by demonstrating proficiency in reading comprehension, writing, and conversation in a foreign language equivalent to the second semester college level, either by passing an exam or by completing approved course work.

Reading and Composition

In order to provide a solid foundation in reading, writing and critical thinking the College requires two semesters of lower division work in composition in sequence. Students must complete a first-level reading and composition course by the end of their second semester and a second-level course by the end of their fourth semester.

Breadth Requirements

The undergraduate breadth requirements provide Berkeley students with a rich and varied educational experience outside of their major program. As the foundation of a liberal arts education, breadth courses give students a view into the intellectual life of the University while introducing them to a multitude of perspectives and approaches to research and scholarship. Engaging students in new disciplines and with peers from other majors, the breadth experience strengthens interdisciplinary connections and context that prepares Berkeley graduates to understand and solve the complex issues of their day.

Unit Requirements

  • 120 total units, including at least 60 L&S units

  • Of the 120 units, 36 must be upper division units

  • Of the 36 upper division units, 6 must be taken in courses offered outside your major department

Residence Requirements

For units to be considered in "residence," you must be registered in courses on the Berkeley campus as a student in the College of Letters & Science. Most students automatically fulfill the residence requirement by attending classes here for four years. In general, there is no need to be concerned about this requirement, unless you go abroad for a semester or year or want to take courses at another institution or through UC Extension during your senior year. In these cases, you should make an appointment to meet an adviser to determine how you can meet the Senior Residence Requirement.

Note: Courses taken through UC Extension do not count toward residence.

Senior Residence Requirement

After you become a senior (with 90 semester units earned toward your BA degree), you must complete at least 24 of the remaining 30 units in residence in at least two semesters. To count as residence, a semester must consist of at least 6 passed units. Intercampus Visitor, EAP, and UC Berkeley-Washington Program (UCDC) units are excluded.

You may use a Berkeley Summer Session to satisfy one semester of the Senior Residence requirement, provided that you successfully complete 6 units of course work in the Summer Session and that you have been enrolled previously in the college.

Modified Senior Residence Requirement

Participants in the UC Education Abroad Program (EAP) or the UC Berkeley Washington Program (UCDC) may meet a Modified Senior Residence requirement by completing 24 (excluding EAP) of their final 60 semester units in residence. At least 12 of these 24 units must be completed after you have completed 90 units.

Upper Division Residence Requirement

You must complete in residence a minimum of 18 units of upper division courses (excluding EAP units), 12 of which must satisfy the requirements for your major.

Student Learning Goals

Learning Goals for the Major

Analytical Skills

  1. Demonstrate the ability to read, interpret, and evaluate arguments and evidence.
  2. Identify and understand assumptions and values, the construction of narratives, and causal logics employed in the framing of problem-solution definitions.
  3. Develop competence in interdisciplinary literacy and cross-national perspectives.
  4. Achieve an integrative understanding of peace theory research and practice.
  5. Assess the strengths and weaknesses of policies, programs, and actors.

Communication Skills

  1. Develop written fluency in ideas and applications.
  2. Participate constructively in debate discussion and dialogue.
  3. Formulate a thesis and argument supported by evidence.
  4. Present and defend oral argument.

Citizenship Skills

  1. Achieve an understanding of civic and ethical responsibility.
  2. Cultivate the habits of mind for active multi-level citizenship.
  3. Develop the skills for lifetime learning and public service.

Courses

Peace and Conflict Studies

PACS 10 Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies 4 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2017, Spring 2017, Fall 2016
This course introduces students to a broad range of issues, concepts, and approaches integral to the study of peace and conflict. Subject areas include the war system and war prevention, conflict resolution and nonviolence, human rights and social justice, development and environmental sustainability. Required of all Peace and Conflict Studies majors.

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PACS 24 Freshman Seminar 1 Unit

Terms offered: Spring 2017, Fall 2016, Spring 2003
The Freshman Seminar Program has been designed to provide new students with the opportunity to explore an intellectual topic with a faculty member in a small seminar setting. Freshman seminars are offered in all campus departments, and topics vary from department to department and semester to semester. Enrollment is limited to 15 freshmen.

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PACS 94 Theory and Practice of Meditation 1 Unit

Terms offered: Fall 2015, Spring 2015, Fall 2014
A practicum using a modern method for systematically reducing random activity in the mind, with comparative studies of relevant texts from monastic and householder traditions, East and West.

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PACS 98 Directed Group Study 1 - 3 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2017, Spring 2016, Spring 2015
Group discussion, research and reporting on selected topics.

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PACS 100 Peace Theory: Approaches and Analyses 3 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2017, Spring 2017, Fall 2016
This course will explore the historical development of the field through analysis of the operative assumptions, logic, and differing approaches of the seminal schools and thinkers that have shaped the field. Students will become familiar with the body of literature and major debates in peace studies and research.

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PACS 119 Special Topics in Peace and Conflict Issues 4 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2017, Fall 2016, Spring 2016
Course will focus on specific issues of current research and issues in the field of peace and conflict studies. Topics will be different each term and reflect the current research of the instructor. Students will be required to do extensive reading on a weekly basis, participate in assigned projects, and complete one major research project and class presentation. Actual assignments may vary from term to term depending upon the subject.

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PACS 125AC War, Culture, and Society 4 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2008, Fall 2007, Fall 2006
This course examines the experience and meaning of war in the formation of American culture and society. It considers the profound influence war has had in shaping the identities and life chances of succeeding generations of American men and women. It will take special note of the role of race, ethnicity, and class as prisms that filter this process. This course also explores how different interpretations of democracy and nationalism have served
as a catalyst for social conflict and change in racial and ethnic identity and relations, especially as reflected in war.
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PACS 126 International Human Rights 4 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2017, Fall 2016, Fall 2015
This course provides an overview to the historical, theoretical, political, and legal underpinnings that have shaped and continue to shape the development of human rights. Students are introduced to substantive topics within human rights and provided an opportunity to develop critical thinking, oral presentation, and writing skills. We discuss where the concept of human rights originates, how these ideas have been memorialized in international
declarations and treaties, how they develop over time, and how they are enforced and monitored. We examine a variety of issues and encourage students to think differently--to analyze world and community events through a human rights framework utilizing some of the necessary tools to investigate, research, and think critically about human rights and the roles that we may assume within this arena. The course requires two six-page papers, participation in a team debate, and an independent reading assignment.
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PACS 127 Human Rights and Global Politics 4 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2017, Summer 2016 10 Week Session, Summer 2016 Second 6 Week Session
After World War II, we witnessed a "revolution" in human rights theory, practice, and institution building. The implications of viewing individuals as equal and endowed with certain rights is potentially far reaching as in the declaration that individuals hold many of those rights irrespective of the views of their government. Yet, we also live in a world of sovereign states with sovereign state's
rights. We see everyday a clash between the rights of the individual and lack of duty to fulfill those rights when an individual's home state is unwilling or unable to do so. After introducing the idea of human rights, its historic development and various international human rights mechanisms, this course will ask what post-World War II conceptions of human rights mean for a number of specific issues including humanitarian intervention, international criminal justice, U.S. foreign policy, immigration, and economic rights. Looking in-depth at these five areas, we will ask how ideas about human rights, laws about human rights, and institutions to protect human rights have on how states and other global actors act, and how individuals have fared.
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PACS 128AC Human Rights and American Cultures 4 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2014, Spring 2010, Spring 2007
The course analyzes the theory and practice of human rights for three groupings in the United States and examines questions of race and ethnicity as they are embedded in various international human rights instruments. The course utilizes an interdisciplinary approach to the study of developing systems, laws, and norms for the promotion and protection of human rights while considering each group's underlying political, literary, and cultural
traditions.
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PACS 130 Cross-Listed Topics 1 - 4 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2017, Spring 2016, Fall 2014
This course is designed to accommodate cross-listed courses offered through other departments, the content of which is applicable to Peace and Conflict Studies majors.

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PACS 135 Special Topics in Regional Conflict 3 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2017, Spring 2016, Spring 2015
Topics vary from semester to semester. The course will offer a critical interdisciplinary study of geo-political regions and the sources of their conflicts.

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PACS 148AC Social Movements, Urban Histories, and the Politics of Memory 4 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2016, Spring 2015, Spring 2014
Course examines the history of progressive social movements in the San Francisco Bay Area. Combining history, sociology, urban geography, and ethnic studies, we ask: why and how these movements emerged? What cultural, racial, ethnic and political identities were drawn from, reconfigured, and created within these movements? What kinds of knowledge and institutions were created by these movements, and how have these legacies shaped (and been
shaped by) the geography, culture, and politics of the area. As part of the ACES program, this course also engages students in creating social movement documentation through collaborations with community partners. Small student groups, supervised by an ACES Fellow, will carry out documentation projects.
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PACS 149 Global Change and World Order 3 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2016, Spring 2015, Spring 2011
This course will analyze emerging trends, patterns, and problems associated with the phenomenon of globalization. Particular attention will be given to world economic and social integration, ethno-religious nationalism and identity politics, domestic politics, and foreign policy. Special emphasis is placed on the prospects of peace and world order in the post-cold war era.

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PACS 150 Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice 3 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2017, Fall 2016, Fall 2015
This course will investigate theories of individual and group conflict as a conceptual framework for practical application. Students will engage in practice as parties to conflicts and as third-party intervenors. The course will look at the sources of conflict, including multicultural aspects, and will emphasize the opportunities for growth and development in conflictive incidents.

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PACS 150AC Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice 3 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2011
This course explores the nature of interpersonal and group conflict, resolution, and their relationship to culture. The course examines the intersection between conflict and race and ethnicity in particular, with an emphasis on the major racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Other dimensions of diversity such as gender, class, and sexual orientation in conflict situations are also explored. The goal is to apply this understanding to resolving intercultural conflicts
through mediation.
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PACS 151 International Conflict: Analysis and Resolution 3 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2017, Spring 2016, Spring 2015
Inspired by the changed meaning of international conflict and the expanding mission of conflict resolution in the post-cold war era, this course will study the contemporary context and issues of conflict by examining the evolution in thinking about conflict, the resolution, and their application in practice.

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PACS 154 Multicultural Conflict Resolution 4 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2014, Spring 2013, Spring 2006
This course will investigate the special issues involved with facilitating resolution of cross/multicultural conflicts. Topics will include cultural contrasts (e.g., values, communication, and problem solving styles), mediator (facilitator/negotiator), credibility, cultural (including gender) contributions to conflict resolution and unique ethical dilemmas. Course includes field immersion, conflict resolution process evaluation and design
, and the opportunity to participate in mediation of a cultural mediation.
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PACS 164A Introduction to Nonviolence 3 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2015, Fall 2014, Fall 2013
An introduction to the science of nonviolence, mainly as seen through the life and work of Mahatma Gandhi. Historical overview of nonviolence East and the West up to the American Civil Rights movement and Martin Luther King, Jr., with emphasis on the ideal of principled nonviolence and the reality of mixed or strategic nonviolence in practice, especially as applied to problems of social justice and defense.

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PACS 164B Nonviolence Today 3 Units

Terms offered: Summer 2010 10 Week Session, Summer 2010 Second 6 Week Session, Spring 2010
The development of nonviolence since the Civil Rights movement. Nonviolent theory and practice seen in recent insurrectionary movements (freedom struggles), social justice struggles, nonviolent intervention across borders and protection of the environment in the emerging world of global corporatism.

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PACS 170 Conflict Resolution, Social Change, and the Cultures of Peace 4 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2016, Fall 2015, Fall 2014
A comprehensive exploration of the concepts and processes of conflict resolution, using this term in the broadest sense. In particular, the course elaborates upon the relationships among conflict resolution, social change, and cultures of peace with examples drawn from the domestic and global levels.

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PACS 190 Senior Seminar 4 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2017, Spring 2017, Fall 2016
Students prepare a major analytical paper synthesizing what they have learned in the major and give an oral presentation on their area of concentration. Students review literature and issues of peace and conflict studies appropriate to focus of senior paper and participate in regular consultations with instructor scheduled outside of class hours in preparing paper for presentation. All students will be expected to read and critique a common core
of literature as well as readings specific to their concentration.
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PACS 195 Senior Thesis 3 - 4 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2017, Spring 2017, Spring 2016
Research paper or suitable research project done under the direct supervision of a faculty sponsor. Subject must be approved by faculty sponsor no later than the preceding semester in which the course is to be taken.

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PACS H195 Senior Honors Thesis Seminar 4 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2017, Spring 2016, Spring 2015
Students are required to research and write a thesis based on the prospectus developed in International and Area Studies 102 or a prospectus approved by the instructor before the first class meeting. The thesis work is conducted in regular consultation with the Honors Seminar instructor and a second topic expert reader to be selected based upon the thesis topic. Weekly progress reports and written work are required.

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PACS 197 Field Studies 1 - 4 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2010, Spring 2010, Fall 2009
Supervised experience relevant to specific aspects of Peace and Conflict Studies in off-campus organizations. Regular individual meetings with faculty sponsor and written reports required.

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PACS 198 Directed Group Study for Upper Division Students 1 - 3 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2015, Spring 2014, Fall 2012
Group discussion, research, and reporting on selected topics. Student initiation in choice of subjects is solicited and welcome.

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PACS 199 Supervised Independent Study 1 - 4 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2015, Fall 2012, Fall 2011
Supervised independent study or research on topics relevant to Peace and Conflict Studies that are not covered in depth by other courses. Topics to be covered are initiated by students.

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Faculty and Instructors

Faculty

Khatharya Um, Associate Professor. Education, memory, Southeast Asian Studies, Asian American histories and communities, Southeast Asian diaspora, refugees, international migration, transnational and diaspora studies, genocide studies.
Research Profile

Lecturers

Peter Bartu, Lecturer.

Tetsushi Ogata, Lecturer.

Karenjot Bhangoo Randhawa, Lecturer.

Manuela Travaglianti, Lecturer.

Darren C. Zook, Lecturer.

Contact Information

International and Area Studies Academic Program

101 Stephens Hall

Phone: 510-642-4466

Fax: 510-642-9850

iastp@berkeley.edu

Visit Program Website

Program Chair

Khatharya Um (Department of Ethnic Studies)

568 Barrows Hall

umk@berkeley.edu

Lead Undergraduate Academic Adviser

Ethan Savage

101 Stephens Hall

Phone: 510-643-4156

ethansavage@berkeley.edu

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