Linguistics

University of California, Berkeley

About the Program

Bachelor of Arts (BA)

Linguistics is the general study of language. It addresses features that all languages have in common, the ways in which languages may differ from one another, and the ways in which languages change over time. The undergraduate major in Linguistics introduces students to sounds and their patterns (phonetics), word structure (morphology), sentence structure (syntax), meaning (semantics), how languages evolve over time (comparative and historical linguistics), how language is processed in the brain (cognitive science), and how language is used in society (sociolinguistics).

Declaring the Major

To declare the Linguistics major, it is necessary first to complete Linguistics 100 with a grade of "C" or better and then submit the Petition to Declare a Major with a copy of the student's Bear Facts  (available through summer 2016) or CalCentral (starting fall 2016) unofficial transcript to the undergraduate student adviser in 1205 Dwinelle Hall. Most students who petition for the Linguistics major do so in their junior year.

Honors Program

With the approval of the major adviser, a student with a grade point average (GPA) of 3.5 or higher, both overall and in the major, may apply for admission to the honors program. This consists of 2-4 units of LINGUIS H195A and LINGUIS H195B units per semester for at least two semesters. Under the direction of a faculty member, students carry out an approved program of independent study in which they attain a reasonable mastery of an appropriate linguistic topic. As evidence of this work, students must submit an acceptable thesis summarizing critically the material they have covered and are invited to give a brief synopsis of their research at the undergraduate honors colloquium held in early May each year.

Minor Program

Many students not majoring in Linguistics find it useful to take several courses in linguistics during their undergraduate careers to complement their major work. A minor in Linguistics gives students official recognition for having completed a Linguistics subspecialization.

Visit Department Website

Major Requirements

In addition to the University, campus, and college requirements, listed on the College Requirements tab, students must fulfill the below requirements specific to their major program.

General Guidelines

  1. All courses taken to fulfill the major requirements below must be taken for graded credit.
  2. Core requirements must be completed at UC Berkeley.
  3. No more than one upper division course may be used to simultaneously fulfill requirements for a student's major and minor programs, with the exception of minors offered outside of the College of Letters & Science.
  4. A minimum grade point average (GPA) of 2.0 must be maintained in both upper and lower division courses used to fulfill the major requirements.

For information regarding residence requirements and unit requirements, please see the College Requirements tab.

Prerequisite

LINGUIS 100Introduction to Linguistic Science4

Upper Division Requirements

Core Requirements
LINGUIS 110Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology4
LINGUIS 115Phonology and Morphology4
LINGUIS 120Introduction to Syntax and Semantics4
LINGUIS 130Comparative and Historical Linguistics4
Electives
Select three to four upper division courses, minimum of 10 units 110
Five units must be selected from Linguistics department offerings 1
The other five units may be selected from outside of the department, the following preapproved list:
Special Topics in African Linguistics
Language, Culture, and Society
Research Theory and Methods in Linguistic Anthropology
Elementary Breton
Old and Middle Irish
Celtic Linguistics
Structure of the Chinese Language
History of the Chinese Language
Elementary Akkadian
Elementary Akkadian
Selected Readings in Akkadian
Selected Readings in Akkadian
Selected Readings in Sumerian
Selected Readings in Sumerian
The Structure of Modern Dutch
Elementary Egyptian
Elementary Egyptian
Intermediate Egyptian
Intermediate Egyptian
The History of the English Language
Topics in the English Language
Literature and Linguistics
History of the French Language
Introduction to French Linguistics
Special Topics in French Linguistics
Translation Methodology and Practice
Introduction to German Linguistics
Middle High German for Undergraduates
GERMAN C109
Course Not Available
History of the German Language
The Phonetics and Phonology of Modern German
The Morphology and Syntax of Modern German
The Structure of Modern Hebrew
Introduction to Classical Japanese
Introduction to Japanese Linguistics: Grammar
Introduction to Japanese Linguistics: Usage
L & S C180T
Course Not Available
Philosophy of Language
Form and Meaning
Theory of Meaning
Language Acquisition
Elementary Sanskrit
Elementary Sanskrit
INTERMEDIATE SCANDINAVIAN LANGUAGES (DANISH, NORWEGIAN, SWEDISH)
Introduction to Old Norse I
Old Norse
Aramaic
Introduction to Slavic Linguistics
Introduction to Hispanic Linguistics
Spanish Phonetics and Phonology
Spanish Morphology and Syntax
SPANISH 166
Course Not Available
Advanced Course in Hispanic Linguistics
Introduction to Applied Language Studies
1

 Courses not on the preapproved list require the prior written consent of an undergraduate adviser to be counted in fulfillment of the major requirements.

Minor Requirements

Students who have a strong interest in an area of study outside their major often decide to complete a minor program. These programs have set requirements and are noted officially on the transcript in the memoranda section, but they are not noted on diplomas.

General Guidelines

  1. All courses taken to fulfill the minor requirements below must be taken for graded credit.
  2. A minimum of four of the upper division courses taken to fulfill the minor requirements must be completed at UC Berkeley.
  3. A minimum grade point average (GPA) of 2.0 is required for courses used to fulfill the minor requirements.
  4. Courses used to fulfill the minor requirements may be applied toward the Seven-Course Breadth requirement, for Letters & Science students.
  5. No more than one upper division course may be used to simultaneously fulfill requirements for a student's major and minor programs.
  6. All minor requirements must be completed prior to the last day of finals during the semester in which the student plans to graduate. If students cannot finish all courses required for the minor by that time, they should see a College of Letters & Science adviser.
  7. All minor requirements must be completed within the unit ceiling. (For further information regarding the unit ceiling, please see the College Requirements tab.)

Requirements

Prerequisite
LINGUIS 100Introduction to Linguistic Science4
Upper Division
Select two from the following:
Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology
Phonology and Morphology
Introduction to Syntax and Semantics
Comparative and Historical Linguistics
Electives, select two upper division courses10
One course must be selected from the Linguistics department offerings
One course may be selected from outside of the department, from the following preapproved list:
Language, Culture, and Society
Research Theory and Methods in Linguistic Anthropology
Elementary Breton
Old and Middle Irish
Celtic Linguistics
Structure of the Chinese Language
History of the Chinese Language
CHINESE 167
Course Not Available
Elementary Akkadian
Elementary Akkadian
Selected Readings in Akkadian
Selected Readings in Akkadian
Selected Readings in Sumerian
Selected Readings in Sumerian
The Structure of Modern Dutch
Elementary Egyptian
Elementary Egyptian
Intermediate Egyptian
Intermediate Egyptian
The History of the English Language
Topics in the English Language
Literature and Linguistics
History of the French Language
Introduction to French Linguistics
FRENCH 146B
Course Not Available
Special Topics in French Linguistics
Translation Methodology and Practice
FRENCH 173
Course Not Available
Introduction to German Linguistics
Middle High German for Undergraduates
GERMAN C109/L/S C180T
Course Not Available
History of the German Language
The Phonetics and Phonology of Modern German
The Morphology and Syntax of Modern German
The Structure of Modern Hebrew
Introduction to Classical Japanese
Introduction to Japanese Linguistics: Grammar
Introduction to Japanese Linguistics: Usage
JAPAN 162
Course Not Available
KOREAN 160
Course Not Available
Philosophy of Language
Theory of Meaning
PSYCH C124
Course Not Available
Language Acquisition
Old Norse
Elementary Sanskrit
Elementary Sanskrit
Aramaic
Introduction to Slavic Linguistics
Introduction to Hispanic Linguistics
Spanish Phonetics and Phonology
Spanish Morphology and Syntax
Spanish Dialectology and Sociolinguistic Variation
SPANISH 165AC
Course Not Available
SPANISH 166
Course Not Available
Advanced Course in Hispanic Linguistics
Introduction to Applied Language Studies

College Requirements

Undergraduate students in the College of Letters & Science must fulfill the following requirements in addition to those required by their major program.

For detailed lists of courses that fulfill college requirements, please review the College of Letters & Sciences page in this Guide.

Entry Level Writing

All students who will enter the University of California as freshmen must demonstrate their command of the English language by fulfilling the Entry Level Writing requirement. Fulfillment of this requirement is also a prerequisite to enrollment in all reading and composition courses at UC Berkeley. 

American History and American Institutions

The American History and Institutions requirements are based on the principle that a US resident graduated from an American university should have an understanding of the history and governmental institutions of the United States.

American Cultures

American Cultures is the one requirement that all undergraduate students at Cal need to take and pass in order to graduate. The requirement offers an exciting intellectual environment centered on the study of race, ethnicity and culture of the United States. AC courses offer students opportunities to be part of research-led, highly accomplished teaching environments, grappling with the complexity of American Culture.

Quantitative Reasoning

The Quantitative Reasoning requirement is designed to ensure that students graduate with basic understanding and competency in math, statistics, or computer science. The requirement may be satisfied by exam or by taking an approved course.

Foreign Language

The Foreign Language requirement may be satisfied by demonstrating proficiency in reading comprehension, writing, and conversation in a foreign language equivalent to the second semester college level, either by passing an exam or by completing approved course work.

Reading and Composition

In order to provide a solid foundation in reading, writing and critical thinking the College requires two semesters of lower division work in composition in sequence. Students must complete a first-level reading and composition course by the end of their second semester and a second-level course by the end of their fourth semester.

Breadth Requirements

The undergraduate breadth requirements provide Berkeley students with a rich and varied educational experience outside of their major program. As the foundation of a liberal arts education, breadth courses give students a view into the intellectual life of the University while introducing them to a multitude of perspectives and approaches to research and scholarship. Engaging students in new disciplines and with peers from other majors, the breadth experience strengthens interdisciplinary connections and context that prepares Berkeley graduates to understand and solve the complex issues of their day.

Unit Requirements

  • 120 total units, including at least 60 L&S units

  • Of the 120 units, 36 must be upper division units

  • Of the 36 upper division units, 6 must be taken in courses offered outside your major department

Residence Requirements

For units to be considered in "residence," you must be registered in courses on the Berkeley campus as a student in the College of Letters & Science. Most students automatically fulfill the residence requirement by attending classes here for four years. In general, there is no need to be concerned about this requirement, unless you go abroad for a semester or year or want to take courses at another institution or through UC Extension during your senior year. In these cases, you should make an appointment to meet an adviser to determine how you can meet the Senior Residence Requirement.

Note: Courses taken through UC Extension do not count toward residence.

Senior Residence Requirement

After you become a senior (with 90 semester units earned toward your BA degree), you must complete at least 24 of the remaining 30 units in residence in at least two semesters. To count as residence, a semester must consist of at least 6 passed units. Intercampus Visitor, EAP, and UC Berkeley-Washington Program (UCDC) units are excluded.

You may use a Berkeley Summer Session to satisfy one semester of the Senior Residence requirement, provided that you successfully complete 6 units of course work in the Summer Session and that you have been enrolled previously in the college.

Modified Senior Residence Requirement

Participants in the UC Education Abroad Program (EAP) or the UC Berkeley Washington Program (UCDC) may meet a Modified Senior Residence requirement by completing 24 (excluding EAP) of their final 60 semester units in residence. At least 12 of these 24 units must be completed after you have completed 90 units.

Upper Division Residence Requirement

You must complete in residence a minimum of 18 units of upper division courses (excluding EAP units), 12 of which must satisfy the requirements for your major.

Student Learning Goals

Learning Goals of the Major

In addition to attaining a basic mastery of the field of linguistics, linguistics majors develop skills in critical thinking, communication, and the use of research methodologies. The array of courses offered by the department includes both the required core courses in phonetics and phonology, syntax and semantics, morphology, and historical linguistics, and a broad range of electives. The core courses allow linguistics majors to master the basics of the discipline, such as the nature of sounds and sound systems, the nature of word structures and syntactic structures, the interaction of syntax and semantics, and the nature of linguistic change, while the elective courses allow students to investigate areas of particular interest. Students learn to apply problem-solving skills in each of these areas. Perhaps more importantly, a linguistics major develops critical thinking skills. By graduation, linguistics majors can employ both theory and empirical evidence in order to evaluate different linguistic arguments, analyze complex linguistic patterns, and understand the role played by assumptions in argumentation. Furthermore, linguistics majors develop advanced verbal skills: they are able to communicate effectively in oral and written form about specific linguistic issues, and they can produce well-organized oral presentations and original written reports supported by empirical evidence. These skills do not disappear at graduation. No matter what profession a linguistics major decides to pursue, throughout a lifetime s/he will possess a working knowledge of sources of reliable information about languages and linguistics and will be able to understand and evaluate current linguistic issues in the world at large. Below is a list of more specific skills.

Skills

Critical Thinking Skills

  • Apply linguistic analysis to evaluate specific theoretical proposals.
  • Compare two or more arguments that have different conclusions to a specific issue or problem.
  • Understand the role of assumptions in argumentation.
  • Be able to analyze complex linguistic patterns.

Research Methodologies

Obtain and collect relevant data using specific qualitative and/or quantitative research methods. These goals are broken down further, and the classes in which they are reinforced are listed, below:

  • Laboratory and experimental methods are introduced in Linguistics 110 and reinforced in several electives, including Linguistics 105, 113, 122 and 140.
  • Quantitative analysis of linguistic data is introduced in Linguistics 100 and reinforced in Linguistics 106, 110, 113, 120, 122, 124, 139, 150, 151, and 181. Linguistics 160 is dedicated specifically to this learning goal.
  • Fieldwork and linguistic data elicitation are introduced in Linguistics 110 and 115 and reinforced in electives Linguistics 113, 122, 170 and 181; Linguistics 140 is dedicated specifically to this learning goal.

Mastery of Linguistic Knowledge

Apply problem-solving skills to complex problems in a variety of subareas of linguistics.

  • Acquire knowledge of traditional linguistic analysis in the core areas of linguistics.
  • Acquire knowledge of language in its various contexts and interfaces.

Mastery of Communication Skills

Communicate knowledge effectively.

  • Communicate effectively in oral form about specific linguistics issues.
  • Communicate effectively in written form about specific linguistic issues.
  • Produce a well-organized oral presentation supported by evidence.
  • Produce an original written assignment (term paper or shorter squib) supported by evidence.

Lifetime Learning Skills

Acquire knowledge and analytical abilities that can transfer from the classroom to broader life during and after the university career.

  • Possess a working knowledge of sources of reliable information about languages and linguistics.
  • Understand and evaluate current linguistic issues in the world at large (social, political, educational, prescriptive).

Academic Opportunities

Linguistics Research Apprenticeship Practicum (LRAP)

The Linguistics Research Apprenticeship Practicum (LRAP) matches Linguistics graduate mentors with undergraduate research apprentices to work closely on a research project headed by the mentor. LRAP provides graduate students with research advising and mentoring experience and gives undergraduates the opportunity to participate in original linguistic research.

Courses

Linguistics

LINGUIS 1A American Sign Language I 5 Units

Terms offered: Summer 2017 First 6 Week Session, Fall 2016, Fall 2015
Introduction of the fundamentals of American Sign Language: comprehension skills, grammatical structures, practice in the production aspects of the language, and exposure to Deaf culture.

American Sign Language I: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 1B American Sign Language II 5 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2017, Spring 2016, Spring 2015
Continuation of the study of the fundamentals of American Sign Language: comprehension skills, grammatical structures, practice in the production aspects of the language, and exposure to Deaf culture.

American Sign Language II: Read More [+]

LINGUIS R1B Endangered Languages: What We Lose when a Language Dies 4 Units

Terms offered: Summer 2017 First 6 Week Session, Summer 2017 Second 6 Week Session, Spring 2017
In this course, we will investigate such questions as: What causes language endangerment and death, and why does it matter? Can dying languages be revitalized? How are thought, identity, and culture influenced by language, and vice versa? The course is designed to hone students' reading, writing, and research skills. Satisfies the second half of the reading and composition requirement.

Endangered Languages: What We Lose when a Language Dies: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 2A American Sign Language 3 5 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2015, Fall 2014, Fall 2008
Continuation of the study of the fundamentals of American Sign Language; comprehension skills, grammatical structures, practice in the production aspects (expressive and receptive) aspects of the language, and increased exposure to Deaf Culture.

American Sign Language 3: Read More [+]

LINGUIS R2B Language and Linguistics in Science Fiction 4 Units

Terms offered: Summer 2016 Second 6 Week Session
If representatives from an alien species appeared on earth from outer space, how would we communicate with them?What if they were not organic creatures, but were instead machines?What would an alien species sound like?What kinds of changes will happen to languages over the next several centuries?The genre of science fiction raises many such linguistic questions, but the science of linguistics has rarely been applied to science fiction texts.
But key science fiction tropes like aliens,robots,and time travel richly reward linguistic investigation.In this class, we will apply current linguistic theory to various works of science fiction, asking first and foremost: How linguistically plausible are the scenarios, tropes, and narratives depicted?
Language and Linguistics in Science Fiction: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 3 Linguistic Diversity 3 Units

Terms offered: Summer 2017 Second 6 Week Session, Fall 2013
Over six weeks, students will explore the common structures and enormous variability observed in human languages. We will introduce elements of basic linguistic description at the level of phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics, and use them to compare, contrast, and classify the languages of the world. Students enrolled in the course will benefit from critically examining preconceptions about language in its many
forms.
Linguistic Diversity: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 5 Language and Linguistics 4 Units

Terms offered: Summer 2017 Second 6 Week Session, Spring 2017, Fall 2016
A general survey of the field of linguistics. Students are introduced to a wide range of data from diverse languages to basic principles of linguistic analysis.

Language and Linguistics: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 10 The Sounds of English 3 Units

Terms offered: Summer 2017 First 6 Week Session, Spring 2017, Summer 2016 Second 6 Week Session
In this course, students will learn the fundamentals of speech production and perception with special emphasis on the sounds of English. Students who take this course will learn the basics of vocal tract anatomy and speech production. Using English as a case study, they will gain a deeper knowledge of a language they already speak. They will also gain tools to study other languages inventories and
phonological processes. The course focuses on practical skills, such as ear and production training. Students will have practice in distinguishing and producing sounds of various dialects of English. This course also lays a foundation for further study in phonetics and phonology.
The Sounds of English: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 11 Writing Systems 3 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2016, Fall 2014, Fall 2011
Examines different writing systems in terms of their historical origin and their cognitive properties. Enrollment limited to 15 students.

Writing Systems: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 16 The English Vocabulary 3 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2014, Fall 2013, Fall 2012
The sources and the resources of the English lexicon. The structures, meanings, formational principles, and pronunciation of complex words in English. Native and borrowed word-formational processes. The development of technical terminologies. Etymology and semantic change.

The English Vocabulary: Read More [+]

LINGUIS S16 The English Vocabulary 3 Units

Terms offered: Prior to 2007
The sources and the resources of the English lexicon. The structures, meanings, formational principles, and pronunciation of complex words in English. Native and borrowed word-formational processes. The development of technical terminologies Etymology and semantic change.

The English Vocabulary: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 22 Introduction to the History of the English Language 3 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2014, Fall 2011
An introduction to the major ways in which the English language has changed over the past 1,200 years. Students will be expected to learn and be able to apply a few basic linguistic concepts in order to understand better the developments we observe. We will investigate data from both literary and non-literary texts.

Introduction to the History of the English Language: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 23 Language and Sex 3 Units

Terms offered: Summer 2017 Second 6 Week Session, Summer 2013 10 Week Session, Summer 2013 Second 6 Week Session
Introduction to linguistic principles through analysis of sexual terminology and collocations. Exploration of sociolinguistic issues related to sex, gender, and sexuality. Examination of how societal attitudes about sexuality are reflected in language, and how different languages express sexual concepts differently.

Language and Sex: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 24 Freshman Seminar 1 Unit

Terms offered: Spring 2017, Fall 2016, Spring 2016
The Freshman Seminar Program has been designed to provide new students with the opportunity to explore an intellectual topic with a faculty member in a small seminar setting. Freshman seminars are offered in all campus departments, and topics vary from department to department and semester to semester. Enrollment limited to 15 freshmen.

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LINGUIS 40 Language of Advertising 3 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2015, Spring 2013
The ways in which language is used in advertising. An introduction to basic linguistic principles of how speech acts work, the semantic effects of framing, and the contribution of language to multimodal print and video advertising: the division of labor between images and words, and different strategies in integrating them into a single message. Cultural differences both in advertising "message strategies" (what content is presented) and in
"formal strategies" (how is it presented?).
Language of Advertising: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 47 Language and Communication Disorders 3 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2017, Spring 2015, Spring 2014
An overview of major communication disorders, and an introduction to career options in speech/language pathology and related career paths. The characteristics of all major types of adult aphasia and several other common adult-onset communication disorders, including dysarthria, apraxia of speech, and communication disorders accompanying right-hemisphere disorders. Principal differences and similarities between symptoms of aphasia and the
effects of aging in neuro-typical speakers, and between symptoms of aphasia and effects of dementia on language processing. Career paths related to language disorders, such as speech language pathology, and how to prepare for them. Resources for people living with aphasia in the Bay Area and U.S.
Language and Communication Disorders: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 51 The Brain's Politics: How the Framing of Issues Works 3 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2016, Fall 2014, Fall 2013
The ways in which knowledge about the brain, mind, and language illuminates politics. Covers political topics of current interest.

The Brain's Politics: How the Framing of Issues Works: Read More [+]

LINGUIS S55 The American Languages 3 Units

Terms offered: Prior to 2007
A linguistic view of the history, society and culture of the United States. The variety of languages spoken in our country, and the issues surrounding them: language and ethnicity, politics of linguistic pluralism vs. societal monolingualism, language and education, language shift, loss, retention and renewal. Languages include English (standard and nonstandard; Black English), pidgins and creoles, Native American languages, Spanish, French, and immigrant languages
from Asia and Europe.
The American Languages: Read More [+]

LINGUIS S55X The American Languages 3 Units

Terms offered: Summer 1995 10 Week Session
A linguistic view of the history, society, and culture of the United States. The variety of languages spoken in our country and the issues surrounding them: language and ethnicity, politics of linguistic pluralism vs. societal monolingualism, language and education, language shift, loss, retention, and renewal. Languages include English (standard and nonstandard; Black English), pidgins and creoles, Native American languages, Spanish, French, and immigrant
languages from Asia and Europe.
The American Languages: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 65 Music and Language 3 Units

Terms offered: Summer 2013 Second 6 Week Session, Summer 2012 Second 6 Week Session
This course investigates the musical characteristics of human language. Major questions include: the relationship between musical and linguistic structures, such as tone, stress, and rhythm; the role of ethnomusicology in language study; how music and language are perceived and processed in the brain differently; and the acoustic properties of speech and music.

Music and Language: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 97 Research Practicum 1 - 3 Units

Terms offered: Prior to 2007
Individual research on projects in the subfields of Linguistics, sponsored by a faculty member; written reports required.

Research Practicum: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 98 Directed Group Study 1 - 4 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2016, Fall 2015, Spring 2015
Group study of a topic not included in the regular department curriculum.

Directed Group Study: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 100 Introduction to Linguistic Science 4 Units

Terms offered: Summer 2017 First 6 Week Session, Spring 2017, Fall 2016
An intensive introduction of linguistic analysis, including core areas such as phonetics and phonology, morphology, and syntax and semantics, with data from a range of languages. Argumentation and writing skills are developed through substantial weekly homework assignments.

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LINGUIS C104 The Mind, Language, and Politics 4 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2011, Spring 2011, Fall 2009
An analysis of contemporary liberal and conservative thought and language, in terms of the basic mechanisms of mind: frames, prototypes, radial categories, contested concepts, conceptual metaphor, metonymy, and blends. The framing of political discourse. The logic of political thought. The purpose of the course is to provide students interested in political and social issues with the tools to analyze the framing of, and logic behind, contemporary
political discourse.
The Mind, Language, and Politics: Read More [+]

LINGUIS C105 The Mind and Language 4 Units

Terms offered: Summer 2017 8 Week Session, Summer 2016 10 Week Session, Summer 2016 8 Week Session, Spring 2016
Conceptual systems and language from the perspective of cognitive science. How language gives insight into conceptual structure, reasoning, category-formation, metaphorical understanding, and the framing of experience. Cognitive versus formal linguistics. Implications from and for philosophy, anthropology, literature, artificial intelligence, and politics.

The Mind and Language: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 106 Metaphor 4 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2016, Fall 2015, Fall 2014
The role of metaphor in structuring our everyday language, conceptual system, and world view. Topics include cross-cultural differences, literary metaphor, sound symbolism, and related theoretical issues in philosophy, linguistics, psychology and anthropology.

Metaphor: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 108 Introduction to Psycholinguistics 3 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2017
Psycholinguistics is the study of the mechanisms underlying the human ability to talk and to
understand language. The goal of this course is to provide an introduction to questions, methods, and key findings in
Psycholinguistics for undergraduate students.

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LINGUIS 110 Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology 4 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2016, Fall 2015, Fall 2014
Introduction to (1) phonetic transcription of speech using the International Phonetic Alphabet, (2) acoustic analysis of speech, (3) physiological and cognitive aspects of speech production and perception, and (4) phonological analysis of language sound systems.

Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 113 Experimental Phonetics 3 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2017, Spring 2016, Spring 2015
Practical training in experimental phonetics; acoustic, physiological, and perceptual analysis of speech.

Experimental Phonetics: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 115 Phonology and Morphology 4 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2017, Spring 2016, Spring 2015
Introduction to important cross-linguistic phonological and morphological phenomena as well as standard methods of description and analysis.

Phonology and Morphology: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 120 Introduction to Syntax and Semantics 4 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2017, Spring 2016, Spring 2015
An introduction to the study of the structural properties of sentences and the connections between sentence structure and sentence meaning.

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LINGUIS 121 Logical Semantics 4 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2017, Fall 2015, Fall 2014
Basic logical concepts. Truth, denotation, and their relation. Models and interpretation. Translation from natural language into logical form and compositionality. Quantification and scope. Intensionality, context-dependency, and presupposition.

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LINGUIS 122 Language Typology and Linguistic Universals 3 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2016, Fall 2015, Fall 2014
Issues in language typology and linguistic universals. An examination of various linguistic subsystems in different languages. Topics will include interrogatives, pronominal systems, relative clause formation, case systems, etc.

Language Typology and Linguistic Universals: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 123 Pragmatics 3 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2015, Fall 2014, Fall 2012
The relation between language use and human actions. Some topics to be emphasized are conversational logic, speech act theory, politeness, social role, psychological perception of oneself and language, variation in language use.

Pragmatics: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 124 Discourse 3 Units

Terms offered: Summer 2015 Second 6 Week Session, Fall 2011, Spring 2011
This course explores how discourse within small group interaction is structured by socio­cultural forces such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, and regional/political affiliation. It looks at various contexts of interaction, from weblogs to political debates to casual chat, in audio, video and text form, covering topics and methods in pragmatics, conversation and discourse analysis, and sociolinguistics.

Discourse: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 125 Gesture, Cognition, and Culture 3 Units

Terms offered: Summer 2015 First 6 Week Session, Summer 2015 Second 6 Week Session, Summer 2014 First 6 Week Session
Everyone gestures – even when they might not realize it. This course seeks to uncover what we can learn about cognition and culture through the lens of this integral aspect of our communicative and cognitive selves. We will consider the relationship between language and gesture including its role in language acquisition and in signed languages, and study how gestures help us
communicate and help us think. We will also look at cross-cultural differences in gesture, the role of gesture in child development, applications of gesture from education to politics, and unpack the possibility of the gestural origins of human language.
Gesture, Cognition, and Culture: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 127 Cross-Cultural Verbal Art 3 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2009
This course examines parallels and differences between language art in different cultures, both at the level of form (linguistic parallelism, rhyme, alliteration) and meaning (how is metaphor used, what rhetorical patterns are artistic?). This course is intended to help students develop a sense of what artistic language is, crossculturally, and to let them examine a chosen poetic tradition in detail for their project. The course readings and the theoretical models
will be drawn equally from Anthropology and Linguistics.
Cross-Cultural Verbal Art: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 128 Linguistic Analysis of Literature 3 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2016, Spring 2014, Fall 2010
Literary texts provide unique material for linguists: good authors manage to use everyday grammatical forms in exceptional ways. In this course, students will read scholarly linguistic works on literary analysis, and also analyze literary texts using the tools they acquire. Linguistics readings will focus on narratology and cognitive linguistic approaches, including mental spaces theory, conceptual metaphor theory, and work on iconicity, viewpoint
, and causal structure.
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LINGUIS 130 Comparative and Historical Linguistics 4 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2016, Fall 2015, Fall 2014
Methods of reconstruction. Types and explanations of language change. Dialectology. The establishment of language relationships and subgroupings.

Comparative and Historical Linguistics: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 131 Indo-European Comparative Linguistics 3 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2014, Spring 2008, Spring 2007
The affinities of the Indo-European languages and the reconstruction of their common ancestor.

Indo-European Comparative Linguistics: Read More [+]

LINGUIS C137 Introduction to Slavic Linguistics 4 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2015, Fall 2013
An introduction to best practices in applying linguistic analysis to Slavic languages. Development of critical thinking and analytical skills.

Introduction to Slavic Linguistics: Read More [+]

LINGUIS C139 Language Spread 3 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2013, Spring 2010, Spring 2006
Linguistic background and the general principles of language spread. Mechanisms of language spread, including creolization-decreolization, language planning, and the role of bilingualism. Case studies in language spread, including Austronesian, Indo-European, Amerindian, Uralic, African, Sinitic, and Australian languages. Relationship of language spread to immigration and culture spreads.

Language Spread: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 140 Introduction to Field Methods 3 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2016, Spring 2016, Fall 2013
"Covers the methods and practice in collecting, processing, and analyzing data based on work with a native speaker of a particular language. Requires students to discriminate and transcribe sounds, collect texts, and to describe and analyze grammatical phenomena from their own data. The language varies each time the course is taught, at the choice on the instructor."

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LINGUIS 141 Empiricism and Linguistics 3 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2011, Fall 2010, Fall 2009
This course considers the status of linguistics as a scientific field of inquiry. Methodological approaches and the type of information that serve as data in linguistics are surveyed and placed in the context of other social science methodology and data. Throughout the course, the practice of linguistics as the science of language, its successes and weaknesses, are placed in the context of thought on the philosophy of science. Students design
and carry out projects using subject methodologies (introspection, corpus, statistical, fieldwork, experimental).
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LINGUIS C142 Language and Thought 3 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2017, Summer 2016, Spring 2016
This seminar explores the relation of language and thought. Is language uniquely human, and if so, what does this reveal about the human mind? Does the particular language you speak affect the way you think, or do human languages reflect a universal conceptual repertoire? The goal of this class is to familiarize you with a set of classic arguments on these themes, together with current research that evaluates these arguments, through weekly
reading and discussion.
Language and Thought: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 146 Language Acquisition 3 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2014
An overview of topics and theories in language acquisition: early development of speech perception and production, word learning, generalizing linguistic structure, and differences between first language acquisition, second language acquisition, and bilingualism. We will also compare different theoretical approaches, and address the classic "nature vs. nurture" question by examining both traditional generativist approaches and more recent usage based models.

Language Acquisition: Read More [+]

LINGUIS C146 Language Acquisition 3 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2017, Spring 2016, Spring 2015
An overview of topics and theories in language acquisition: early development of speech perception and production, word learning, generalizing linguistic structure, and differences between first language acquisition, second language acquisition, and bilingualism. We will also compare different theoretical approaches, and address the classic "nature vs. nurture" question by examining both traditional generativist approaches and more
recent usage based models.
Language Acquisition: Read More [+]

LINGUIS C147 Language Disorders 3 Units

Terms offered: Summer 2016 First 6 Week Session, Summer 2016 Second 6 Week Session, Summer 2015 10 Week Session, Summer 2015 Second 6 Week Session, Spring 2013
An introduction to experimental and theoretical research on language disorders, particularly acquired aphasia in adults. Major course themes include the relationship between normal and pathological language, and the usefulness of linguistic analysis for empirical research. Topics include phonetic, phonological, morphological, semantic
, syntactic, and pragmatic aspects of language disorders in mono- and multilingual speakers of typologically diverse languages.
Language Disorders: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 148 Phonological Development 3 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2016
This class will explore phonological development, focusing primarily on first language acquisition. How do young children acquire the phonological and phonetic patterns of the language surrounding them? It is well-established that children exhibit pronunciation patterns that differ from those of adult speakers. We will examine a range of factors that might contribute to this: perceptual, articulatory, speech-planning, grammatical. In the last part of the course we will
briefly discuss phonological delays and second-language acquisition. Students will gain knowledge of phonological development, experience in reading, critiquing and presenting journal articles, and hands-on experience analyzing transcribed acquisition data.
Phonological Development: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 150 Sociolinguistics 3 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2013, Fall 2012, Fall 2011
The principles and methods of sociolinguistics. Topics to be covered include linguistic pragmatics, variation theory, social and regional dialectology, and oral styles.

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LINGUIS 151 Language and Gender 3 Units

Terms offered: Summer 2017 First 6 Week Session, Summer 2016 First 6 Week Session, Spring 2012
An overview of research over the past 30 years on the relationship between language and gender: how women's use of language differs from men's, in U.S. and other cultures; how men and women are spoken of differently; how women and men have different amounts of access to power via public discourse; gender differences in nondominant groups (e.g., lesbians and gays; African Americans); the role of stereotyping
in linguistic differences between the sexes; role of gender in discourse genres.
Language and Gender: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 152 Pidgin and Creole Languages 3 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2011, Fall 2001, Fall 1998
This course will cover various pidgins and creoles of the world, examining their linguistic and sociohistorical significance, as well as their use in the modern world.

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LINGUIS 153 Speech in Society 3 Units

Terms offered: Summer 2016 10 Week Session, Summer 2016 Second 6 Week Session
Even within a single language or dialect, speech can vary greatly. Variation occurs between groups, between individuals, and even within individuals in different contexts. The primary influence for such speech variation is social factors such as gender or class. While many differences can be found in word choice or sentence structure, most variability occurs in pronunciation. The study of social influences on pronunciation
is known as 'sociophonetics', an interface of the two subfield, sociolinguistics and phonetics. In this course we will explore the development of the field, the linguistic features which vary, the social factors influencing these differences, questions of how children acquire knowledge of sociophonetic variation, as well
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LINGUIS 154 Language Revitalization: Theory and Practice 3 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2016
This course will explore a range of theories and practices that undergird efforts by linguists and language activists to revitalize and revalorize endangered languages in communities around the world, with a focus on the Americas. Beginning with an exploration of how linguistic diversity, language vitality, and language politics interact, the course will narrow focus toward individual student projects that explore language revitalization issues in the context of a specific
language or community, including the option to create usable revital- ization materials for that community.
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LINGUIS 155AC Language in the United States: a Capsule History 4 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2015, Spring 2014, Spring 2013
This course brings together history, sociology, and linguistics to develop a deeper view of who we are as a nation. It is organized as a narrative history of the U.S. from the perspective of immigration and language. We devote significant portions to the languages of Native Americans, African American English, and to the Spanish spoken in the U.S., as well as addressing the various other dialects of American English, the numerous smaller
immigrant languages, Hawaiian, and ASL.
Language in the United States: a Capsule History: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 158 Computational Methods 3 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2012, Fall 2002, Fall 2001
An introduction to computational methods for linguists. No prior programming experience required. Students will learn how to program, and will use that knowledge to manipulate and analyze linguistic datasets, including corpora. The course will also prepare students for further study in computational modeling.

Computational Methods: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 159 The Deaf Community and American Sign Language 3 Units

Terms offered: Summer 2003 10 Week Session, Summer 2002 10 Week Session, Summer 2001 10 Week Session
Social and linguistic aspects of the deaf community and its language--American Sign Language (A.S.L.). Lecture, discussion, and videotape presentations will provide an introductory survey of American Deaf Culture in general; the Bay Area community in particular. Specific areas covered include historical, social and political aspects of A.S.L. with particular emphasis on educational and legal
institutions. All presentations are conducted in American Sign Language and English.
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LINGUIS 159L American Sign Language Laboratory 2 Units

Terms offered: Summer 2003 10 Week Session, Summer 2002 10 Week Session, Summer 2001 10 Week Session
Introduction to American Sign Language with native speaker. Adjunct to Linguistics 159.

American Sign Language Laboratory: Read More [+]

LINGUIS C160 Quantitative Methods in Linguistics 4 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2017, Spring 2016, Spring 2015
An introduction to research using quantitative analysis in linguistics and cognitive science. Students will learn how to use the R programming environment for statistical analysis and data visualization.

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LINGUIS 165 Topics in Music and Linguistics: Rhythm, Meter, and Text-setting 3 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2013
This course will introduce the basics of meter and phrasing in both music and linguistics. It will examine the similarities and differences between the two domains, and go on to consider what happens when elements of the two domains are combined, as in music and lyrics.

Topics in Music and Linguistics: Rhythm, Meter, and Text-setting: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 170 History, Structure, and Sociolinguistics of a Particular Language 3 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2016, Spring 2016, Fall 2015
In this course, students explore with a faculty member the history, structure, and sociolinguistics of a particular language. Generally, this is a language that is a research interest of the professor. The language investigated changes with each offering of this course.

History, Structure, and Sociolinguistics of a Particular Language: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 175 American Indian Languages 3 Units

Terms offered: Fall 2015, Spring 2013, Spring 2011
Introduction to the native languages of the Americas.

American Indian Languages: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 181 Lexical Semantics 3 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2016, Spring 2013, Fall 2012
Lectures and exercises in the description of word meanings, the organization of lexical systems, the lexicalization of particular semantic domains (kinship, color, etc.), and contrastive lexicology: lexicalization pattern differences across languages.

Lexical Semantics: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 183 The Linguistics of Game of Thrones and the Art of Language Invention 3 Units

Terms offered: Summer 2017 First 6 Week Session
This is a college level introduction to language creation and language study. Language creation lies somewhere between the realms of art and science, drawing heavily on both. Students will acquire the fundamentals of the scientific study of language, and will be encouraged to take that information and employ it creatively in the field of conlanging (language creation). This course will feature in class lectures, group discussion, classroom activities
, and at home study.
The Linguistics of Game of Thrones and the Art of Language Invention: Read More [+]

LINGUIS H195A Linguistics Honors Course 2 - 4 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2017, Fall 2016, Spring 2016
A two-semester course consisting of independent study of an advanced topic, supervised by a facutly member, and culminating with a senior honors thesis which will be evaluated by a faculty honors committee. Thesis is due on the Monday of the 13th week of the second semester, and honors students will be invited to present their research at an Undergraduate Colloquium.

Linguistics Honors Course: Read More [+]

LINGUIS H195B Linguistics Honors Course 2 - 4 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2017, Fall 2016, Spring 2016
A two-semester course consisting of independent study of an advanced topic, supervised by a facutly member, and culminating with a senior honors thesis which will be evaluated by a faculty honors committee. Thesis is due on the Monday of the 13th week of the second semester, and honors students will be invited to present their research at an Undergraduate Colloquium.

Linguistics Honors Course: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 197 Research Practicum 1 - 3 Units

Terms offered: Spring 2017, Fall 2016, Spring 2016
Individual research on projects in the subfields of Linguistics, sponsored by a faculty member; written reports required.

Research Practicum: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 198 Directed Group Study and Research 1 - 4 Units

Terms offered: Summer 2017 Second 6 Week Session, Spring 2017, Fall 2016

Directed Group Study and Research: Read More [+]

LINGUIS 199 Supervised Independent Study and Research 1 - 4 Units

Terms offered: Summer 2017 8 Week Session, Summer 2017 First 6 Week Session, Spring 2017

Supervised Independent Study and Research: Read More [+]

Faculty and Instructors

+ Indicates this faculty member is the recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award.

Faculty

Christine Beier, Assistant Adjunct Professor. Language endangerment, documentation, and revitalization; Amazonian languages.

Amy Rose Deal, Assistant Professor. Meaning, grammar, endangered languages, Native American languages, semantics, syntax, word structure, language universals, language variation, Nez Perce language.
Research Profile

Susanne Gahl, Associate Professor. Linguistics, psycholinguistics, linguistic structure, language production, aphasia and related language disorders.
Research Profile

+ Andrew Garrett, Professor. Linguistics, English, California, language change, Indo-European languages, historical linguistics, northern California Indian languages, linguistic structure, typology, ancient Greek, Latin, Irish, Oceanic languages.
Research Profile

Gary B. Holland, Professor. Historical linguistics, Indo-European linguistics, poetics, early Indo-European languages, linguistic typology, historical syntax, history of linguistics.
Research Profile

Larry M. Hyman, Professor. Linguistics, phonological theory, typology, African languages, the Niger-Congo family, especially the comparative and historical study of the Bantu language family.
Research Profile

Sharon Inkelas, Professor. Morphology, phonology, reduplication, child phonology.
Research Profile

Peter S. E. Jenks, Assistant Professor. Syntax, semantics, linguistics, linguistic theory, Thai, sudanese languages, African languages, Southeast Asian languages.
Research Profile

Keith Johnson, Professor. Phonetics.
Research Profile

Susan S. Lin, Assistant Professor. Phonetics, articulatory phonetics, ultrasound speech research.
Research Profile

+ Lev D. Michael, Associate Professor. Linguistic typology, Amazonian languages, anthropological linguistics, language contact and areal typology, language documentation and description.
Research Profile

+ Line Mikkelsen, Associate Professor. Morphology, syntax, semantics, Germanic and California languages.
Research Profile

Terry Regier, Professor. Computational methods, language and thought, semantic universals.
Research Profile

Richard Rhodes, Associate Professor. American Indian languages, lexical semantics, lexicography, Algonquian languages, Ojibwe, Mixe-Zoquean languages, mixed languages, Michif, Sayula Popoluca.
Research Profile

Eve E. Sweetser, Professor. Subjectivity, syntax, semantics, cognitive linguistics, historical linguistics, Celtic languages, speech act theory, semantic change, grammaticalization, gesture, metaphor, iconicity, viewpoint, construction grammar, semantics of grammatical constructions.

Lecturers

Sherry L. Hicks, Lecturer.

Emeritus Faculty

Leanne Hinton, Professor Emeritus. Linguistics, sociolinguistics, American Indian languages, language loss, language revival.
Research Profile

Paul Kay, Professor Emeritus. Linguistics, sociolinguistics, linguistic anthropology, pragmatics, syntax, semantics, lexicon, grammar, color naming, lexical semantics, grammatical variation, cross-language color naming, the encoding of contextual relations in rules of grammar.
Research Profile

George P. Lakoff, Professor Emeritus. Mathematics, literature, philosophy, cognitive linguistics, the neural theory of language, conceptual systems, conceptual metaphor, syntax-semantics-pragmatics, the application of cognitive linguistics to politics.
Research Profile

Robin T. Lakoff, Professor Emeritus. Linguistics, sociolinguistics, pragmatics, comparative syntax of Latin and English, the relation between linguistic form, social and psychological context; language gender; discourse strategies, discourse genres, politics of language.
Research Profile

Ian Maddieson, Professor Emeritus. Linguistics, phonetic and phonological universals, articulatory and acoustic phonetics, African, Austronesian, South-East Asian and Sino-Tibetan languages.
Research Profile

+ James A. Matisoff, Professor Emeritus. Linguistics, Japanese, Southeast Asian languages, Tibeto-Burman, Thai, Chinese, field linguistics, Yiddish studies, historical semantics, psychosemantics, language typology, areal linguistics.
Research Profile

John J. Ohala, Professor Emeritus. Linguistics, experimental phonology, phonetics, historical phonology, ethological aspects of communication, speech technology, automatic recognition of speech, diverse behavioral phenomena.
Research Profile

William S-Y. Wang, Professor Emeritus. Evolution, psycholinguistics, language change, phonology, Chinese linguistics, language engineering, experimental phonetics.
Research Profile

Karl E. Zimmer, Professor Emeritus. Linguistics, history of linguistics, Turkish, word formation.
Research Profile

Contact Information

Department of Linguistics

1203 Dwinelle Hall

Phone: 510-642-2757

Fax: 510-643-5688

linginfo@berkeley.edu

Visit Department Website

Department Chair

Andrew Garrett, PhD

1218 Dwinelle Hall

Phone: 510-664-4087

Fax: 510-643-5688

garrett@berkeley.edu

Undergraduate Adviser

Martine Alexander, MA

1205 Dwinelle Hall

Phone: 510-642-2757

Fax: 510-643-5688

martinea@berkeley.edu

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